2019-06-30 - DID YOU KNOW?


The English Civil War

7/05/2019 01:32:00 AM 0
The English Civil War

The English Civil War

Under Elizabeth, the power of parliament was grwoing.After she died, her cousin, king of scotland, become king James 1st of England (1603).

 This was the end of the Tudor dynasty and the beginning of the House of Stuart.

At this time, there were religious reformers who thought the Anglican Church (church of England) was not strict enough and they wanted to reform it. These groups of religious reformers were called Puritans, because they wanted to purify the church. 

there was a lot of hostility towards these Puritans and some escaped England to make a new religious community, first in Holland, and then later in America (in Massachusettes).

After king James died, his son become king Charles (1625). Charles believed in the divine power of kings and tried to rule without Parliament.

 He tried to arrest members of parliament. Parliament fought back. Thus began the English Civil War .

Civil War started in 1640, with Oliver Cromwell as the leader of the Parliament. The main issues of this war were religious toleration (for puritans and the other protestant groups) and more power for Parliament (and less power for the king). Puritans supported the parliament against the king.

King Charles was defeated by Cromwell's army and executed on January 30, 1649, and for the first and only time in English history, there was no monarch.

When England become without a king, it  was ruled by Cronwell as a "CrommonWealth" rather than a kingdom.

There were many different groups (religious and political) competing for power, and so the army generals under Cromwell took control. 

England become a military dictatorship under puritan rule. There were strict religious laws.


Nike pulls Betsy Ross flag shoes after Kaepernick complaint, report says

7/02/2019 06:29:00 PM 0
Nike pulls Betsy Ross flag shoes after Kaepernick complaint, report says

Nike pulls Betsy Ross flag shoes after Kaepernick complaint, report says

The flag of the 13 American colonies has been appropriated by some white nationalists as representing a time when the U.S. had slavery.

Nike has pulled a new Fourth of July shoe featuring Betsy Ross' flag for the 13 American colonies reportedly after Colin Kaepernick expressed concerns, sparking outrage among some conservatives and prompting the Arizona governor to announce his state will pull millions of dollars in financial incentives to the company.
The shoe design drew concern from Kaepernick because the former NFL star said the early flag has connections to slavery, people familiar with the matter told The Wall Street Journal.
In recent years, the Betsy Ross flag has been appropriated by the white nationalist group Identity Evropa and the Ku Klux Klan, who use it to represent a time when slavery was legal in the United States.
"Nike has chosen not to release the Air Max 1 Quick Strike Fourth of July as it featured an old version of the American flag,” Nike said in a statement to CNBC.
According to the Journal, the shoes had already been shipped to retailers, and Nike asked for them to be returned. A spokesperson for Kaepernick declined to comment to NBC News.
Nike’s decision drew complaints from some conservatives, most notably the Republican governor of Arizona, Doug Ducey.
On Twitter early Tuesday morning, Ducey announced  he had ordered the Arizona Commerce Authority, a public-private economic development agency, to withdraw incentives the state offered Nike to build a plant in Goodyear, Arizona.
“Today was supposed to be a good day in Arizona, with the announcement of a major Nike investment in Goodyear, AZ.” Ducey wrote. “Words cannot express my disappointment...Nike has made its decision, and now we’re making ours.”
The deal was only announced Monday and according to city records would have brought more than 500 full-time jobs to the Phoenix suburb of 82,000 people and produced over $450 million in economic activity during its first five years of operation.
“Arizona’s economy is doing just fine without Nike,” Ducey said, adding that he “won’t suck up” to the company.
The Arizona Commerce Authority told NBC News it agrees with and supports Ducey's decision. NBC News reached out to Nike and the city of Goodyear for comment but did not immediately hear back.
Sen. Ted Cruz, R-Texas, also weighed in on the controversy, scolding the company on Twitter.
“It’s a good thing Nike only wants to sell sneakers to people who hate the American flag,” Cruz said.
Nike’s partnership with Kaepernick last year drew similar conservative outrage. Social media users posted pictures and videos of themselves burning their Nikes, upset that the shoe company partnered with the former NFL player who has used his platform to draw attention to issues of police brutality and racial injustice.

Successful Orion Test Brings NASA Closer to Moon, Mars Missions

7/02/2019 04:48:00 PM 0
Successful Orion Test Brings NASA Closer to Moon, Mars Missions

Successful Orion The  Brings

 Nasa Closer To Moon,Mars 


NASA successfully demonstrated Tuesday the Orion spacecraft’s launch abort system can outrun a speeding rocket and pull astronauts to safety during an emergency during launch. 

The test is another milestone in the agency’s preparation for Artemis missions to the Moon that will lead to astronaut missions to Mars.

During the approximately three-minute test, called Ascent Abort-2, a test version of the Orion crew module launched at 7 a.m. EDT from Space Launch Complex 46 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida on a modified Peacekeeper missile procured through the U.S. Air Force and built by Northrop Grumman.

The Orion test spacecraft traveled to an altitude of about six miles, at which point it experienced high-stress aerodynamic conditions expected during ascent. The abort sequence triggered and, within milliseconds, the abort motor fired to pull the crew module away from the rocket. Its attitude control motor flipped the capsule end-over-end to properly orient it, and then the jettison motor fired, releasing the crew module for splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean.

A team is collecting the 12 data recorders that were ejected during the test capsule’s descent. Analysis of the information will provide insight into the abort system’s performance.

“We're building the most powerful rocket in the world to send astronauts to the Moon in the Orion spacecraft for Artemis missions,” said Bill Hill, deputy associate administrator for Exploration Systems Development at NASA Headquarters in Washington. 

“With this exploration system designed to safely carry humans farther into space than ever before, we'll also have an equally powerful launch abort system that will pull the crew away if there is a problem with the rocket during the early portion of ascent.”

The tower-like abort structure consists of two parts: the fairing assembly, which is a shell composed of a lightweight composite material that protects the capsule from the heat, air flow and acoustics of the launch, ascent, and abort environments; and the launch abort tower, which includes the abort motor, attitude control motor, and jettison motor.

 The system is built specifically for deep space missions and to ride on NASA’s powerful Space Launch System (SLS) rocket.

“Launching into space is one of the most difficult and dangerous parts of going to the Moon,” said Mark Kirasich, Orion program manager at Johnson Space Center in Houston.

 “This test mimicked some of the most challenging conditions Orion will ever face should an emergency develop during the ascent phase of flight. Today, the team demonstrated our abort capabilities under these demanding conditions and put us one huge step closer to the first Artemis flight carrying people to the Moon.”

NASA was able to accelerate the test schedule and lower costs by simplifying the test spacecraft and eliminating parachutes and related systems. NASA already qualified the parachute system for crewed flights through an extensive series of 17 developmental tests and eight qualification tests completed at the end of 2018.

Engineers are making progress building and testing the Orion spacecraft for Artemis 1, the first uncrewed mission with the SLS rocket – an integrated system traveling thousands of miles beyond the Moon – and for Artemis 2, the first mission with astronauts.

At NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, technicians are preparing to attach the Orion crew and service modules before testing at the agency’s Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio, later this year. The crew module for Artemis 2 is being outfitted with thousands of elements – from bolts and strain gauges to parachutes and propulsion lines.

The agency recently reached major milestones for the SLS rocket, assembling four of the five parts that make up the massive core stage that will launch Artemis 1 and delivering the four engines that will be integrated into the core stage, along with the engine section, later this summer. When completed, the entire core stage will be the largest rocket stage NASA has built since manufacturing the Saturn V stages for NASA’s Apollo lunar missions in the 1960s. 

Orion is part of NASA’s backbone for deep space exploration, along with the SLS and Gateway, that will land the first woman and next man on the Moon by 2024. 

Through the Artemis program, the next American Moon walkers will depart Earth aboard Orion and begin a new era of exploration.
Learn more about Orion at:


Queen Elizabeth

6/30/2019 02:11:00 PM 0
Queen Elizabeth


Queen Elizabeth

Queen Elizabeth the first (1558-1603), She is the first daughter of king Henry from his second wife Ann Boleyn. Elizabeth come to be the queen at the age of 25, she is the most well known queen in history , because she was intelectual , and fluent in 4 languages; 

Greek,Latin,French,and Italian , She studied thepology. Elizabeth was like her mother and become a strong protestant.

When she come to power England had no army or police and a weak bureaucracy.

 When she died in 1603, She left England as one of the most powerful nations on earth.

In 1559 Elizabeth made Protestantism as the national religion by having parliament pass the act of supremacy: this law made the queen (or king) the supreme head of the church of England.

 There were rumors the Catholics were going to try to assassinate Elizabeth and that Mary, queen of Scots was involved. Parliament wanted her executed and Elizabeth had her head cut off in 1587.

King Philip of Spain wanted to help the catholics in England ( this was a time of fighting between catholics and protestants ).

 Also, English and Spainish ships were coming into conflict on the ocean. By the mid 1580s it become clear that Spain and England would go to war with each other. In one of the most famous battles in English history, the English channel 1588.

In the same year Shekespear arrived in London. He wrote 20 plays which Elizabeth enjoyed very much. Many of this historical plays celebreted England's greatness.

This was a time of great economic grouth for England. This was also the beginning of the great age of exploration and descovery around the world.