2019-07-21 - DID YOU KNOW?

7.26.2019

College Student Finds a 65-Million-Year-Old Triceratops Skull During Paleontology Dig in North Dakota

7/26/2019 07:13:00 PM 0
College Student Finds a 65-Million-Year-Old Triceratops Skull During Paleontology Dig in North Dakota



College Student Finds a 65-Million-Year-Old Triceratops Skull During Paleontology Dig in North Dakota





Paleontology is often a game of luck, and an undergraduate student at the University of California, Merced recently hit the jackpot. 

As CBS News reports, Harrison Duran, a fifth-year biology student with an emphasis in ecology and evolutionary biology, was on a dig in the Badlands of North Dakota when he struck upon the partial skull of a 65-million-year-old Triceratops fossil.

Duran trekked out to the Badlands with "bone digger" and Mayville State University biology professor Michael Kjelland expecting to find plant fossils on their two-week dig. Among the fossilized wood and leaves, they discovered something else: the remains of a Triceratops, one of the most iconic dinosaurs of all time.

Duran, whose passion for dinosaurs predates his academic career, was ecstatic. “I can’t quite express my excitement in that moment when we uncovered the skull,” he told UC Merced. “I’ve been obsessed with dinosaurs since I was a kid, so it was a pretty big deal.”

The specimen was named Alice in honor of the owner of the land where it was found. After a week-long excavation, the partial skull was covered in foil and plaster and transported by truck to Kjelland's lab.

 Kjelland noted that such fossils are susceptible to theft (Triceratops skulls can be worth a quarter-million dollars), but he hopes to eventually make Alice viewable to the public. His ideal scenario would be touring the skull around various locations, but the fossil must be further analyzed and prepared for display before that can happen.

The Dakotas are famous for their dinosaur fossils. Triceratops are especially prevalent there—in South Dakota, the species is the official state fossil.

Understanding The AI

7/26/2019 02:06:00 PM 0
Understanding  The AI



Understanding  The AI 





Discussions of artificial intelligence (AI) have created a certain amount of unease by those who fear it will quickly evolve from being a benefit to human society to taking over. Even Stephen Hawking and Elon Musk have warned of AI’s threats. However, we’re not all operating from the same definition of the term and while the foundation is generally the same, the focus of artificial intelligence shifts depending on the entity that provides the definition. Let’s look at 6 definitions of artificial intelligence and see how some of the industry’s leaders are focusing their AI research efforts.

John McCarthy first coined the term artificial intelligence in 1956 when he invited a group of researchers from a variety of disciplines including language simulation, neuron nets, complexity theory and more to a summer workshop called the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence to discuss what would ultimately become the field of AI. At that time, the researchers came together to clarify and develop the concepts around “thinking machines” which up to this point had been quite divergent. 

McCarthy is said to have picked the name artificial intelligence for its neutrality; to avoid highlighting one of the tracks being pursued at the time for the field of “thinking machines” that included cybernetics, automata theory and complex information processing. 

The proposal for  the conferencesaid, “The study is to proceed on the basis of the conjecture that every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can in principle be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it.”

Today, modern dictionary definitions focus on AI being a sub-field of computer science and how machines can imitate human intelligence (being human-like rather than becoming human). 

The English Oxford Living Dictionary gives this definition: “The theory and development of computer systems able to perform tasks normally requiring human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages.”

Merriam-Webster defines artificial intelligence this way:
  1.       A branch of computer science dealing with the simulation of intelligent behavior in computers.
  2.       The capability of a machine to imitate intelligent human behavior.

7.25.2019

Viking History: Facts & Myths

7/25/2019 03:59:00 PM 0
Viking History: Facts & Myths




Viking History: Facts & Myths




The Vikings were a seafaring people from the late eighth to early 11th century who established a name for themselves as traders, explorers and warriors. They discovered the Americas long before Columbus and could be found as far east as the distant reaches of Russia. 
While these people are often attributed as savages raiding the more civilized nations for treasure and women, the motives and culture of the Viking people are much more diverse. These raiders also facilitated many changes throughout the lands from economics to warfare.

Many historians commonly associate the term "Viking" to the Scandinavian term vikingr, a word for "pirate." However, the term is meant to reference oversea expeditions, and was used as a verb by the Scandinavian people for when the men traditionally took time out of their summers to go "a Viking." While many would believe these expeditions entailed the raiding of monasteries and cities along the coast, many expeditions were actually with the goal of trade and enlisting as foreign mercenaries.

The Viking Age generally refers to the period from A.D. 800, a few years after the earliest recorded raid, until the 1050s, a few years before the Norman Conquest of England in 1066, according to Angelo Forte, Richard D. Oram and Frederik Pedersen, authors of "Viking Empires" (Cambridge University Press, 2005). During this time, the reach of the Scandinavian people extended to all corners of northern Europe, and many other nations found Vikings raiding their coasts. The farthest reported records of Vikings were in Baghdad for the trading of goods like fur, tusks and seal fat.
A Viking raid on the monks of Lindisfarne, a small island located off the northeast coast of England, marked the start of the Viking migration from Scandinavia in 793. This location was a well-known abbey of learning, famous throughout the continent for the knowledgeable monks and its extensive library. During this raid, monks were killed, thrown into the sea or taken as slaves along with many treasures of the church, and the library itself razed. This single event set the stage for how Vikings would be perceived throughout the Viking Age: savage warriors with no respect for religion or appreciation for learning.
In the years that followed the initial raid, coastal villages, monasteries and even cities found themselves besieged by these sea-based foreign intruders. Due to the frequency of sea attacks, many developments were made in developing fortifications in the forms of walled-in harbors and sea-facing stone walls, defenses that proved to be quite effective at deterring raids.
The reason behind these attacks is a topic of debate among academics, though the reasons often stem from such things as the Christian persecution and forced baptism of pagans to reduced agricultural outputs in the Scandinavian region. Many more documented reasons might have prompted these people to leave their cold and harsh homes to seek out the means to survive elsewhere. Yet, despite how unforgiving their homeland may have been, most Vikings still returned to their homeland at the end of each season with treasure, slaves and goods to survive yet another winter.

At the heart of the Viking culture lies the Viking ship. These extraordinary vessels — longships in particular — shaped the lives of the sea-faring Norse and changed the course of European history. 
Honed for more than 10 centuries, the ship-building skills of the Norse led to a variety of vessels — from small fishing boats and big-bellied cargo vessels to the famous lightning-fast longships used for raiding. But no matter the size, most of the ships were designed to be narrow in shape with short drafts (vertical distance between waterline and bottom of ship), features that gave them high adaptability for use in the ocean and rivers. 
The Vikings' ship-building craft reached a high point in the 7th century when they invented the keel, a structural beam that runs from the bow to the stern and sits lower than the main body of the ship. This feature increased speed and stability and prevented unwanted lateral movement, according to Yachting & Boating World. The keel, along with the addition of a large mast and sail, would ultimately allow the Norsemen to make long journeys across the North Atlantic. These vessels are now looked back upon as revolutionary in design and a technological miracle.
To begin the ship-building process, the Vikings would drive wedges into freshly-cut trees until the wood split along the grain. Up to 20 great oaks might be cut down for a ship. The wood was shaped and arranged so that the planks fit together perfectly in a clinker construction, overlapping like a fan. In clinker shipbuilding, the outside is started first, and then the frame is put inside it, according to the living history site Regia Anglorum. The ship was coated with a watertight mixture of tar-soaked animal hair, wool or moss and stabilized with iron rivets. The end result was an incredibly fast and flexible longship that nothing could catch. 
The men rowed with a series of oars, supplemented with a large sail most likely made of wool. Rather than a rudder, the longships had a steerboard fastened to the right-hand side of the ship at the stern, according to Royal Museums Greenwich. 
By the middle of the 9th century, the raids really picked up as word spread across the Norse region of Europe's removable wealth. Norse villages and communities came together to build ships with the intention of improving their lives through the business of raiding. In 842, Vikings ruthlessly attacked Nantes on the French coast, and because of their ability to maneuver up rivers, they went on to raid towns as far inland as Paris, Limoges, Orleans, Tours and Nimes, according to History.com. 
The Vikings paid as much attention to art as to craft. The longships were usually adorned with carved dragon heads at the bow, which were believed to keep evil spirits away. The dragon head coupled with a large square, red-striped sail would come to be known as the signature of the Vikings. The sight would strike fear into the hearts of Europeans for three centuries.

The Vikings set up colonies on the west coast of Greenland during the 10th century. The Viking sagas tell of journeys they undertook from these Greenland colonies to the New World. They mention places named "Helluland" (widely believed to be Baffin Island), "Markland" (widely believed to be Labrador) and "Vinland" (a more mysterious location which some archaeologists believe could be Newfoundland). 

At present the only confirmed Viking site in the New World is located at L'anse aux Meadows on the northern tip of Newfoundland. That site was excavated in the 1960s. 
Additionally there are three possible Viking sitesthat archaeologists have recently excavated in Canada. Two of the possible sites are located in Newfoundland while a third site is located on Baffin Island in the Canadian Arctic. 

One possible Viking site is located at Point Rosee in southern Newfoundland; at the site, archaeologists found a possible bog iron roasting hearth beside a structure made with turf.
 Another possible Viking site is located at Sop's arm in Newfoundland and includes a series of "pitfalls" that would have been used to trap large animals such as caribou. These pitfalls are arranged in a straight line, and archaeologists believe that the Vikings could have driven the animals toward these pitfalls where the animals could have been trapped and killed. At the third possible Viking site, located at Nanook on Baffin Island, researchers found artifacts that may have been used in metal production and the remains of a structure that may have been built by the Vikings. 

Many modern perceptions of Vikings found their origins through Catholic propaganda. Upon the sacking of multiple Christian facilities and the loss of countless relics and treasures, the Catholic ministry sought to dehumanize them. Until Queen Victoria's rule of Britain, the Vikings were still portrayed as a violent and barbaric people. During the 19th and 20th centuries, perceptions changed to the point where Vikings were glamorized as noble savages with horned helmets, a proud culture and a feared prowess in battle.

With regards to the more popular Viking myths created through these misperceptions, the following are proven to be clearly false according to historical record:
  1. Vikings wore horned helmets
    Vikings traditionally went bareheaded or wore simple leather and metal-frame helmets with the occasional face guard. The idea behind horned helmets came about from the Viking revival during Victoria's reign.
  2. They were filthy and unkempt
    Archaeologists find evidence on a regular basis of combs, spoons and other grooming utensils that indicate the Viking people were very keen on maintaining personal hygiene.
  1. They spent all their time raiding and warring
    While raiding proved an excellent source of income, many of the Vikings held farms back in their homeland that their wives maintained during Viking season. When the men returned home from a raid, they resumed their normal routine of farming.
  1. Vikings were a unified army
    Due to the difficult geographic location, the Scandinavian people were very spread out to conserve limited farmland. In addition, the penetration of Christianity caused many great divisions among the people still worshipping the traditional Nordic pantheon, further emphasizing the divided nature of the people.
  2. They were large and heavily muscled
    Due to the short summer seasons, growing crops was difficult and resources were always scarce. As a result, many of the Scandinavian people were much smaller than commonly depicted due to limited food sources.
While the living conditions in Scandinavian regions were certainly harsh and made a hard people, many Vikings suffered from the scarcity of resources and the people set up their homes over great distances with no real unified leadership. 
During the Viking Age, the Scandinavian people were able to make a stronger push to the outside worlds and create a reputation for themselves beyond simple barbarism. 
While some Vikings were driven with the lust for riches, many sought more peaceful economic relationships with the surrounding nations.

Indeed, as Forte et al wrote, there was no dramatic end to the Viking Age
The authors contend that the Scandinavian kingdoms were slowly acculturated and integrated into the "wider body politic of European Christendom."

7.24.2019

What Is Sarafina ?

7/24/2019 07:40:00 PM 0
What Is  Sarafina ?



What Is  Sarafina ? 






Sarafina is a minor character in the film, making few appearances and having only one spoken line.

Little of her past is known, though she mated with an unnamed lion with whom she had a daughter named Nala. However, as Nala is stated to be betrothed to Simba as part of a long-standing tradition, she would have presumably agreed to the betrothal at some point.

Appearances

The Lion King

Sarafina is first seen sleeping with the other lionesses inside Pride Rock with Nala in her paws as Simba arrives to wake up Mufasa.

She is then seen later that day bathing Nala while visiting Sarabi. When Nala asks for permission to accompany Simba to the watering hole, she asks Sarabi for her opinion. When Sarabi gives her permission, Sarafina agrees and allows the two cubs to go.

She later appears along with Sarabi, Nala, Zazu and the rest of the pride mourning as Scar tells them that both Mufasa and Simba had perished in a stampede. Sarafina and the pride watch in horror as Scar allows hyenas into the Pride Lands after becoming King.

 After that, she hasn't made an appearance, through it is presumed that she took place during the Battle of Pride Rock and later was present during the presentation of her newborn granddaughter.

The Lion King (2019)

In this live action/CGI remake of the film, this character is called Serafina.

Printed media

The Lion King: Six New Adventures


Sarafina makes an appearance in the book Nala's Dare, which is part of The Lion King: Six New Adventures series. In the book, she along with a young rogue lion named Ni, rescue Nala and her friends Kula and Chumvi from hyenas. She later introduces Ni, who had been driven from his pride to the rest of the Pride Land lions.

Simba's Big Secret

After Nala goes missing, a worried Sarafina asks Simba if he has seen her. Not wanting to give away Nala's secret, Simba replies that he hasn't seen her.

However, after some coaxing from Sarabi, Simba tells Sarafina that Nala went to a secret cave near the red cliffs. Sarafina, Simba, Sarabi and the rest of the pride goes to search for Nala and discover her trapped inside the cave. After being rescued, Nala goes to Sarafina and promises not to go anywhere without telling someone again.

7.23.2019

10 Ways to Easily Make Money Online

7/23/2019 10:58:00 PM 0
10 Ways to Easily Make Money Online




10 Ways to Easily Make Money Online





There are many ways that one can earn a secondary/passive income online. These ways vary from anything as simple as filling out online surveys to earn cash and rewards, to something as complex as starting a blog to earn money by driving traffic and monetizing your content. In this article, I am going to outline not just these two ways to make money, but eight other ways in-between for someone to make money online.

  • Take Survey Sites
Survey Sites are great for making money online. However, since there are so many sites out there, you are going to want to make sure you do your research to ensure that you are picking a site that has a rich history in making people rich. Surveyswonk.com is a great resource to find such information, being that on the site there are reviews for over 75 survey sites, ranking them from most profitable and safe, to sites that you should stay clear from.

  • Data Entry
Yes, Data Entry is still around. Although computers can do almost anything these days, there is still demand for data entry analysts to transfer anything from data into forms to translating transcripts into foreign languages.

  • Cash Back Sites
If you find yourself shopping online, you’re going to want to check this option out. There are sites out there that you can earn money by just doing your shopping online through their site, and affiliated sites. Ebates, and Mr. Rebates, although similar in name, are two separate companies that offer cash-back opportunities for shopping online. On these sites, you can find coupons for products that earn you a percentage of your purchase back. This is a great way to save earn some money by doing something that you probably already be doing, shopping online.

  • Investing
One can make a lot of money investing online, keeping an eye on their stocks, trading, selling, and all that wiz. However, if you are someone that is not as up to date on the stock market as you’d like, there are options for you to invest still and make money. For example, a site like Acorns is a great way to introduce yourself to online trading and investing. Acorns is a site that rounds all your purchases up to the dollar and invests those extra cents into low-risk investment opportunities that will yield a profit over time.

  • Freelance Writing
Money times, websites are looking for freelance writers to create content for them, and in return, the writers either receive an up-front payment, whether it be per word, or straight up for the article, or a percentage of the money that the website makes from the article. You can look for these opportunities by searching your favorite sites, and looking for a “Write For Us” section.

  • More Freelance Work
A site that has taken off recently that can earn you money online is Fiverr. Fiverr is a marketplace for freelance work where you can find postings about job opportunities that you can complete online. These pay anywhere from a few dollars, to upwards of $100 for bigger jobs, and once you find your groove, you can crank out multiple jobs a day, earning yourself a nice little paycheck at the end of the week.

  • Start a Website/Blog!
You can make a lot of money online just by sharing your opinion and attracting visitors. The first step to this is finding your niche, and creating content for your site. Once you have a lot of content, you can work on getting your website or blog visible on search pages, which will come with the more visitors that you receive.

  • Sell your Stuff!
We have all seen those episodes on TV about Letgo. However, if you are one of those that haven’t, let me tell you a little about it. Letgo is an online marketplace where people sell their used items directly to you. There is no middleman, and Letgo does not even charge a fee. So, if you have an old set of Cd’s laying around that you don’t want or a mini Kegerator that you haven’t used since college, sell it on Letgo, and pocket that money.

  • Check Out YouTube
YouTube is a great way that you can earn money online. YouTube? Yes. YouTube. Although you may be thinking that YouTube is just a website that you can find videos on your favorite TV show moments, or searching for new music, there can money made on it. People these days get paid on YouTube to create video tutorials, steam video games, and even advertise products. This process takes a while, being that you have to build up a following first before you can start seeing money, but in the end can be quite profitable.

  • Virtual Assistant
Virtual Assistants can work from anywhere, at any time, for anyone. If you are proficient in some technical programs such as PowerPoint, Excel, and have strong communication skills, you can make money being a Virtual Assistant. Although I cannot give you an exact step by step procedure on how to become a virtual assistant, there are sites out there that can help put you in contact with websites and companies that are looking for virtual assistants every day.

5 Ways to Make Money Writing Blogs or Editing Wiki Pages

7/23/2019 10:57:00 PM 1
5 Ways to Make Money Writing Blogs  or Editing Wiki Pages



5 Ways to Make Money Writing Blogs 

or Editing Wiki Pages



When the blogs were first introduced, they were regarded as glorified digital magazines and journals. However, in the past money-making and gaining incredible profits from blogging was never the target. But with the evolution of the digital atmosphere and the change in reasons for blogging, the blogging landscape has changed to a much greater extent.

Now in this highly-digitized age, where blogging is the core element of every marketing, advertising, promotional strategy, blogging has diversified a lot. From business and marketing to entertainment and political topics and subjects, blogging covers a larger and almost category and industry of this modern era.

Starting a blog of your own and developing is one of the crucial aspects of every modern marketing strategy. Blogging might sound like an easy job because all you have to do is to sit at home and write about something that inspires you or intrigues your interest, sounds simple right? However such is not the case, starting might be a simple task but when it comes to developing your blogs you need to acquire a considerable amount of earnings and profits from it.

Growing your blog into something that benefits you and generates money for you requires a considerable amount of hard work, ceaseless efforts and a lot of time investment. Whether you are a Wikipedia page creator or a regular blogger, to find success in the blogging universe you have to come up with original content and unique ideas which sometimes can be one of the most difficult and mind-exhausting things to do. However to make things a little bit easy for you here are the best and most widely-practiced ways to help you in making your blogs must-read articles:

Method 1: Constructing Your Own Blog:
Blogging can be a profitable career, enabling you to work while relaxing at home. However, not every blog is going to be a huge success. Making a successful blog demands untiring efforts, complete dedication, and perseverance.

 Building a blog takes time and coming up with better and improved content is one of the challenging parts of this job.

Having a clear understanding of what it takes to become a successful and renowned blogger can help you in reaching your blogging goals and targets. Collaborating with multiple recognized advertising partners can also help you in expanding the type and increasing the numbers of readers.

Even though you can blogging provides you with the benefit of working from anywhere at any time, it still requires tons of hard work. You don’t only write blogs and articles, but you also have to build contacts, promote your blogging website and manage the whole blogging community. 

Interact with the readers and make sure to give a timely response.

Method 2: Advertise Well:
Whether it’s a simple innovation or the first ever blog, nothing makes it to the front cover without a solid advertising strategy. Many blogging websites sell some space for advertising services. 

These advertising services pay the rent either for having the ad space or by how much coverage the advertisement gets. These ad services are a great way of generating income as these ads services pay as per the number of people clicking your ad.

Some of the ad services pay as per the organic traffic that your blogging receives which in most cases is not as profitable as the previous way. The revenue and profit generated by advertisements are accruing rather than one big financial breakthrough.

Method 3: A Blog for a Different Website:
The internet t is jam-packed with hundreds and thousands of smaller websites that are in a constant search of reputed and well-versed writers to create well-composed written pieces for their sites. Most of these smaller blogging sites pay well based on the quality of the content that you provided them with. So take some timeout and search for topics and sites that might help you in generating passive income.

Try to find a website that might be interested in publishing your content. Some sites might pay you more based on the acknowledgment and popularity of the published article. Since each blogging site has its own set of rules and guidelines, try to follow their content tone, article length, and writing and formatting styles to get your article featured.

Method 4: Look For Freelance Wiki Expertise:
Internet and Google are the first places that every person who is looking for a wiki writer go to. Several websites post freelance jobs for wiki writers and experts, and it can be a great way to give a breakthrough to your blogging sites.
Whether you are a Wikipedia page creator or an editor, look for such job postings that require wiki-expertise to edit or create new content for Wikipedia. Get to know more about your client’s needs and requirements and understand every detail before updating or starting off with the content creation process. Produce a Wikipedia article and submit it for client’s approval to collect your payments.

Method 5: Premium Memberships:
Another widely-used practice of money-making through blogs is to sell memberships. The key to making money through premium memberships is to ensure that you are providing your clients with something of great value, something that they will not find on another site. Make sure that you are developing something that is worth the price.

8 Reasons Why Affiliate Marketing is the Best Way to Monetize Your Website

7/23/2019 10:56:00 PM 0
8 Reasons Why Affiliate Marketing is  the Best Way to Monetize Your Website



8 Reasons Why Affiliate Marketing is 

the Best Way to Monetize Your Website




Simply put, it’s when you become ‘affiliated with’ another website that sells a product or service and then promotes (market) that product or service through your own site. There are various technical aspects to this, but whoever you affiliate with will provide all of the tools and guidance you need and there are whole networks dedicated to making these partnerships run smoothly.
So, what makes it such a good way to monetize your website?
1) It Suits Content Producers
If your website isn’t based on your own product or service, then you’re probably a content producer. And unless you sell information, it’s difficult to make revenue directly from that content. Your blog might have value in terms of helping, informing or entertaining readers, but nobody expects to pay to read it.
Affiliate marketing allows you to adopt somebody else’s product or service and earn a commission when it sells. Marketing is essentially producing content and since you’re already producing it, then the two go hand in hand.
2) It’s Not All About Traffic
Another common way to monetize a website is through displaying advertisements on the pages. The vast majority of advertising revenue is based on the amount of traffic you get, much like a newspaper can command better rates based on circulation.
Unfortunately, the average site simply does not get enough traffic to make meaningful money. Even when ads are targeted, the targeting is usually broad and the payoff low.
On the other hand, affiliate marketing is highly targeted. It’s not necessarily about how many people visit your site, but the type of people that visit and whether they are likely to purchase the product or service – which brings us to the next point …

3) You Can Match Products to your Audience
The key benefit of affiliate marketing and the reason why ‘it’s not all about traffic’ (though it obviously helps), is that you can match products to your audience.
For example, if you run a horror movie review site and community, then becoming an affiliate for a streaming horror movie service is going to be more beneficial than relying on ad revenue. Not only is your audience inherently interested in horror movies, but your own knowledge is going to benefit your marketing efforts. You might review the service or hype the movies that are available etc.
This is much more likely to make you money than getting $0.10 for every thousand views a random banner ad gets.

4) A lot of the Hard Work is Done For You
Businesses are marketing their product or service already. They know what works and will provide you with all the information, base materials and assets you need to succeed. Your job is to take this and present it to your audience; whether that be through blog posts and reviews, video content, passing on coupon codes and free trials or displaying highly targeted banner ads.
Of course, you can be creative yourself and include your own sales copy and delivery, but it’s not your responsibility to formulate their global marketing strategy and as long as you have a relevant audience, it’s not as difficult as it first looks.

5) It’s Higher Paying
Compared with ad networks that pay you based on the number of impressions or clicks an advert gets, affiliate marketing is much higher paying. You’ll typically be paid a percentage of the sale (commission), though some companies will even pay for an action, such as getting a user to sign-up for something.
If a visitor to your site clicks a banner ad, you only get a few cents regardless of whether they go on to spend thousands with the business that took out the ad.
If you’re good at producing content then you can make good money tapping into high-paying niches like payday loans and online lending services, lawyers, and dentists.

6) It Inspires New Content
Let’s face it if you run a blog or content-based site, sometimes you just run out of ideas or motivation to keep it updated. Affiliate marketing is the perfect impetus to keep on producing content (because you’ll make money), but also because having a product or service to market can help spark new ideas.
If a vendor releases a new deal or entirely new product, then you have a new review to write or unboxing video to produce.

7) There’s No Risk
Because you are promoting somebody else’s business, there’s no risk of losing money with affiliate marketing. It also costs zero money to get started.
The worst position you can be in after giving it a try is right back where you were at the beginning.

8) Scalability
Whether you have a few hundred daily visitors or hundreds of thousands, affiliate marketing is highly scalable. With large vendors, your site and performance are free to grow. With smaller vendors, you can grow together.

If you are looking to make money from your website or blog and have never given affiliate marketing a try, you’re certainly missing out. However, if you’re already making profits, let us know why you like it so much and share some tips below!

the Dark matter, the mysterious substance that makes up most of the mass of the universe

7/23/2019 04:27:00 PM 0
the Dark matter, the mysterious substance that makes up most of the mass of the universe

If this type of dark matter existed, people would be dying of unexplained ‘gunshot’ wounds




The idea boils down to this: If a certain type of dark matter particle existed, it would occasionally kill people, passing 
through them like a bullet. Because no one has died from unexplained gunshotlike wounds, this type of dark matter 
does not exist, according to a new study.

Still, there are other ways to detect this particular type of dark matter and researchers should keep looking, says Katherine Freese, a theoretical physicist at the University of Texas in 
Austin who wasn’t involved in the study but has studied the effects of dark matter on humans. “We don’t know what dark matter 
is, so we shouldn’t write things off,” she says.

Dark matter makes up about 85% of the mass of the universe, but the substance itself remains a mystery. One theory posits that it consists of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs).

These particles would be abundant, but so shy about
 interacting with ordinary matter that only very sensitive detectors would 
have a crack at catching them. So far, they’ve evaded detection in 
large tanks of liquid xenon and argon; kept in underground laboratories, these tanks would be able to sense the signals 
from WIMPs without interference from sources such as 
cosmic rays.

A less mainstream dark matter candidate, known as macros, would form heavier particles. Although macros would be much rarer than WIMPs, any collisions with ordinary matter would 
be violent, leaving an obvious trace. The new study explores
 what those traces might look like if the macros hit people.

Glenn Starkman and Jagjit Singh Sidhu, theoretical physicists
 at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, were originally searching for traces of macros in granite slabs when 
a colleague made a suggestion. “Why can’t you just use humans 
as a detector?” they recall Robert Scherrer, a co-author and
 theoretical physicist at Vanderbilt University in Nashville 
saying. 

“The energies you’re talking about, these things would 
probably at best maim a person, at worst kill a person.”

The team forged ahead with the idea and modeled macros that would have a similar effect to a fatal shot from a .22 caliber 
rifle. 

Such particles would be minuscule, but very heavy, and
 thus release the same amount of energy as a bullet as it passes 
through a person. 

Their calculations focused on the millions of people living in Canada, the United States, and Western Europe over 
the past decade because researchers say these countries have more reliable data on how many people died and from what causes.

In this sample, scientists would expect to see a handful of
 reports of unexplained deaths from invisible dark matter “bullets.” 
But there were none, the researchers report this week on the preprint server arXiv. These deaths would not go 
unnoticed—they would leave victims dead or dying
 with a tubular wound where their flesh was vaporized.

This experiment doesn’t rule out heavy macro dark matter altogether, Scherrer says. It merely eliminates a certain range
 of them. Heavier macro dark matter would not occur 
frequently enough to measure, Freese notes, 
and other forms wouldn’t kill people.

“There is probably still room for very heavy dark matter,” says Paolo Gorla, a particle physicist at Italy’s underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory, who is not involved with the study.

The Case Western team is not the only group of researchers 
trying to harness new ways to detect dark matter. 

Freese has developed paleo-detector experiments that would 
 be sensitive enough to detect the traces of WIMPs in ancient minerals. However, rocks could also show signals of heavier  
dark matter—in more obvious ways. If macros collide with 
rock, they would shoot straight through, melting a cylinder of rock that would quickly resolidify into new forms.


 When light-colored granite is melted, for example, the melted rock hardens as a channel of dark obsidianlike stone.

For now, the Case Western researchers will not be extending  their human death calculations. 

This fall, they will search monuments, countertops, and graveyards for dark, elliptical patches that could be signs of macros hitting granite slabs. Next, they hope to identify characteristics for a range of macros and then train people
 to look for the marks on granite surfaces around the world.

 That, they say, would open up a whole new way to use 
  humans as dark matter detectors.


                   weakly interacting massive  particles