2019-09-08 - INTHEPROF

9.13.2019

fascism and Nazism in India

9/13/2019 06:44:00 PM 0
fascism and Nazism in India
WRITTEN BY:  Rida Mohssine
LAST UPDATED:  See Topic History

The world hold its breathe as it witness the rise of yet again another Hitler.

CJ post analyses how Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi is dragging South Asia towards extermination much like Hitler did to Europe in the 1940's.



The RSS is a group of Hindu religious fanatics devoted to the cause of Hindu religious since 1925 to rejuvenate Golwalker's dream of a Hindu majoring State in India, just like Heinrich Himmler's dream.
Hindu was over cultural cover political aims are served by its political faucets the ruling BJP the party model after Hitler's national socialist German's workers party.
In retrospect, RSS militant committed heinous communal riots defecting similar ethnic cleansing tendencies to the Nazis in Europe.
The American historian Stanley Payne and author of world fascism cyprian blamires concluded that the racially motivated ideology of the RSS is the Indian variant of fascism with no space for minorities.
The RSS do it's cause military training, use of salutations, commands and their uniform shows its affinities to the Nazi ideology.
The genocide of millions whom Hitler and his followers deemed is subhumans or undesirable resulted in the Holocaust.
Modi's ideological mentor Golwalkar writes that the Nazi Germans give a good lesson for us in India to learn and profit by.
Inspired by the ideals of Nazism, Modi implemented them in all Parts of India particularly in Gujarati cashmere killing thousands of Muslims and Christians along the way.
Modi's recent supremacist belligerents in Kashmir might lead to another nuclear holocaust which might engulf the entire world. The global community must stop acting as mere spectator to the rapidly deteriorating situation in cashmere.
The world's leaders must stop Modi's fanatisme before it's too late.



Since Germany's military had to be reduced, Hitler could no longer remain a soldier after the war, but he kept working for the army as an informant. 

9.12.2019

Building the british empire

9/12/2019 10:35:00 PM 0
Building the british empire
WRITTEN BY:  Rida Mohssine
LAST UPDATED:  See Topic History
The country full title for constitutional  and political purposes is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, although the short  terms"UK" and "BRITAIN"  are normally used  for convenience .

 It is  part of that group of Iselands, described  geographically as the British  Isles, the lie  off the North- West  Coast of  contiental  Europe.

 The Mainlands  EnglandScotland and Walles form the largest Iseland and are known politically Great Britain. Northern Ireland shares II- largest  Iseland with the Republic if Ireland, which has been Independent Britain since 1921.  

Smaller  Iselands, such as Anglesey, the Isle of Wight, The Orkneys, Shetlands,Hebrides and Scillies, lie off the costs  and are part of the British political union.

The Isel of man in the sea and  the Irish sea and the Channel Islands off the French West Coast are not, however, parts of the United Kingdom.

 They are self-governing crown dependencies let's have a history cool relationship with the British crown imposes their own independent legal systems, legislators and administrative structures. However, the British government is responsible for their defense and foreign relations and can interfere if good Administration is not maintained.

Virgin is offering discounts and divided up according to 'religions'.'Regionalism' can mean several things, such as  political geographically identifications; assistance and development aid areas; and the provision of services like gas, water, electricity  and health to  specific places.

It Should not  be confused  with  form a local government structures and is often based,  on former economic planning Regions.

Regionalism, as a cultural Factor, is importance in British life. 

It illustrates a sense of local identity let's become stronger with increasing distance from London. It also reflects a reduction in the influence of the central government on local populations.

And a determination by these people to assert their individual  liberty  and choice.

National feelings May intensify with the establishment of a  Scottish parliament in Edinburgh  and a welsh assembly in Cardiff. But this  could also lead to increase it regionalism within Scotland and Wales themselves and provoce demands for local antonomy  in English regions.

antonio gramsci!!! have you ever heard thiis name before?

9/12/2019 10:35:00 PM 0
antonio gramsci!!! have you ever heard thiis name before?

WRITTEN BY:  Rida Mohssine

LAST UPDATED:  See Historical figures

Antonio Gramsci  , Italian political activists   and writer  who was influential in the development of Marxist  Cultural Theory


He  aimed  to develop Concepts that  would  enable the understanding and transformation of 20 Century political and economic structure and social and cultural relations. It is best known for his work on the idea of his hegemony.




Antonio Gramsci


 Gamsci   was born in sardinia  and was  educated in turin  when he joined  Italian Socialist Party, and worked as a journalist. 

in 1921  he was a Founder member of the Italian Communist Party  PCI and, after a visit to Moscow, was elected to the Italian parliament. 

He later became leader of the PCI and, in 1926 , was sentenced to 20 years imprisonment by mussolin's fascist government,   at his trial the official prosector demanded of the judge that we must stop this brain working for 20 years !  However,  during his imprisonment  Gramasci wrote  his most famous works , published as selections from Prison Notebooks 1971, which  combined studies of politics philosophy history literature and culture. He died shortly after being released from prison.
 Geometry is important to cultural studies because of his attempts to develop the connections between class relations,  culture and Power how to reducing issues of culture and meaning to ask superstructure determined by an economic Base. 

His Concept  of  hegemony aimed  at understanding  how  dominant classes good organized  their rule   though consent when their political and economic power was not in the interest of those they subordinated  however, this was not static situation within which the ideas of the powerful went unchallenged   gramsci  use the metaphor of a war of manoeuvre  to suggest that political struggles  we're continually being fought  into who variety of areas;political, economic, and cultural.
In turn this meant conceptualising the role of the intellectuals who were part of fighting these wars.  

Through his nation of the organic intellectual he argued that everyone who use ideas was an intellectual (it was not just a label for Small professional group ) and that this thinkers and their ideas were organically tied to particular class interests . 

It can be argues that it is Gramsci's ideas  that  form  the basis  of the nation of cultural politics ; due to the ways in which they were taken up and reworked by those working in the Birmingham center for contemporary cultural studies.

9.11.2019

the Great: Battle of Gaugamela 331 BC

9/11/2019 12:22:00 PM 0
 the Great: Battle of Gaugamela 331 BC
WRITTEN BY:  Rida Mohssine
LAST UPDATED:  See Topic History

It's September of the year 331 BC. 
After taking Phoenicia and Egypt, Alexander marches east, to the inland of the Persian Empire. 



As his troops were about to cross the Tigris river, he received scout reports, that Persian King Darius had gathered another huge army and was preparing for a decisive encounter with the Macedonians.

 Both armies finally met on the vast open field near the village of Gaugamela in a final clash between two of the biggest powers of classical antiquity. 

It's beginning of the year 331 BC. 

After the successful subjugation of Tyre and Gaza, the Macedonian army took some time to regenerate in the rich valley of the Nile. 

The Egyptian satrap didn't try to oppose Alexander, as the Macedonian was seen as a liberator rather than an invader, since Egypt wasn't the most loyal of Persian provinces. 

After the crushing defeat near Issus, Persian King Darius changed his approach and tried to stop Alexander's extraordinary conquest by using diplomacy. 

Yet the Macedonian King refused Darius' increasingly generous terms thrice, and with winter passing by, he started to draw the plans for the upcoming Babylonian campaign. 

With all preparations completed, the refreshed and decently supplied Macedonian force marched out back to Phoenicia in the beginning of April. 

It's worth noting, that Alexander paid significant attention to the often overlooked logistical part of his conquests. 

Maintaining such a considerable force in excellent shape for many years far away from home required exceptional planning and stellar management. 

For as long as it was possible, the Macedonian army stuck to the coast, and utilized the fleet to take care of provisions. Darius was well informed of the Greek movement and by the time Alexander crossed the Euphratus, the new Persian army was being assembled.

The King of Kings expected the Macedonians to march along the river, straight to Babylon, and decided to use scorched earth tactics by ordering the plunder of the Euphratus valley. 

But thriving cities lying close to the river were decently defended, making supply gathering quite challenging, so Alexander chose a northern route instead which, although longer, had rural settlements that offered easy access to food and water. Upon hearing the unexpected news, Darius instantly departed Babylon heading north, along the east bank of the Tigris River. 

He appointed a strong mounted unit under Mazaeus, governor of Babylon to guard the northern crossings of the Tigris and plunder its east bank, to hinder the Macedonian march. 

But Mazaeus failed to challenge the Greeks during the crossing, and in the middle of September Alexander reached the east side of the river. 

Darius knew, that the encounter was close, so he started to seek a suitable place for the upcoming battle. 

He setup camp on a wide plain near the village of Gaugamela and began preparations. In the meantime Alexander's troops caught a Persian scouting party and found out that Darius was camping 30 kilometres to the east. The Macedonian King quickly dispatched his own scouts and advanced towards the enemy. 

Camp was set behind a hill about 10 kilometres away from the presumed battlefield nd after a few days of rest, on the last days of September, Alexander departed towards the Persian positions. 

The hill between the two armies was guarded by Mazaeus' detachment, but upon seeing at whole Macedonian army was approaching, the Persian nobleman simply retreated without a fight and rode back to the camp, yielding the hill Having the hill was an advantage but Darius still held the open fields which suited combat for his larger army far better. 

So the hill was important, but an acceptable loss. Alexander took the hill and, after a short examination of the environs, decided to set a temporary camp there. 

This manoeuvre gave him a significant advantage, as the higher ground provided a good view of the Persian camp and their troop deployment. 

Moreover, the hill was well suited for defence purposes, so Alexander didn't rush and comfortably prepared for the battle, making sure his troops were well fed, rested and in good mental condition. 

In comparison, due to Mazaeus' failure, Darius was under constant threat of sudden Greek attack, even at night, so his troops had to maintain readiness for battle. 

Of course, Darius had superior numbers, plenty of solid cavalry and suitable terrain, but his army could do nothing but wait for the Macedonians to make the first move, as storming the ridge was not a viable option. 

The sun slowly set on the horizon, while Alexander discussed the upcoming battle with his officers. It is said, that his second-in-command, Parmenion, advised a night attack, in order to catch Persians off guard, but Alexander turned down this idea as too risky. The Macedonian command then agreed to attack the next day, in the morning. 

The night passed by, and the first sun rays lit up the battlefield. It was the 1st of October. 

The Persian army was already in battle formations, as they spent the whole night waiting for the Macedonian attack, which never came. 

Darius efficiently used the manpower of his vast empire, up to 100,000 men were gathered to fight for their king. 

10,000 of the professional Immortal infantry together with a few thousand Greek mercenaries formed the core of the Persian centre. But the real power of Darius' army was positioned on the flanks.

More than 30,000 fine cavalrymen from various Persian satrapies posed a serious threat, especially on such a wide and level battlefield. 

Darius also had a few hundred Indian scythed chariots and even fifteen elephants, though these animals probably didn't take part in the battle. 

The rest of his army was formed by various infantry units gathered from tribes inhabiting the Achaemenid Empire, though their battle potential was questionable. 

Due to the size of Persian army, the command was split between Darius, and his trusted generals - Mazaeus and Bessus. 

We could spend another five minutes discussing the exact positions of Bactrian cavalry or Parthian infantry in the Persian battle line, but, as in battle, time is of the essence and at this point, the sun was near noon. 

Oversleeping Alexander finally awoke, and the refreshed Macedonian army abandoned the hill, and began their deployment. 40,000 infantrymen and a 7,000 strong cavalry detachment formed a slanted battleline, with the right flank facing the front of the Persian centre. 

To avoid possible encirclement, both flanks were sufficiently reinforced and slightly curved backwards. 

The Macedonian center was occupied by a disciplined sarissa phalanx, supported by solid hypaspist units. Cavalry was split between both flanks, Thessalian units on the left, and Companion cavalry on the right. 

The second line was occupied by Thracian and Illirian infantry. Just like in previous battles, the command was split between Alexander and Parmenion. To achieve a flanking advantage, the Macedonian king started to move his line right, but Darius immediately countered by stretching his left flank and matched the opponent's movement. 

Darius had the battlefield levelled and cleared off any obstacles for more effective chariot use, which is why he wanted to prevent the Macedonians from leaving the prepared ground. 

Persian cavalry moved out and attacked Alexander's far right. Fierce fighting began, with no clear winner. But as time passed, Macedonian cavalry prevailed, and routed some of the Persian units, though suffering serious damage. 

Seeing the trouble on his left, Darius sent all of his scythed chariots to storm the Greek centre. 

Yet this attack wasn't particularly successful, as defenders opened their ranks and allowed attackers to ride through the line, raining javelins on them at the same time. 

Following the chariots, the Persian right flank led by Mazaeus stormed Parmenion's side, killing many Greeks in the process and forcing the Macedonian commander to give ground. Parmenion was in serious trouble, being outnumbered and partially enveloped, but it wasn't the first time he was forced to fight at unfavourable odds. 

His flank fought bravely, and somehow endured the Persian push, though at high cost. It was at this point that Darius noticed that Alexander was moving his flank to the right while Parmenion stayed on the left, creating a gap in the Macedonian centre. 

The Persian king saw this as a weak point and impulsively sent his Immortal units to exploit the opening. 

But, this was bait. Doing so exposed Darius’s own centre. Alexander had waited for such an opportunity, he swiftly moved Companion cavalry supported by the remaining units of his flank and struck the Persian centre, right where Darius' exposed royal guard stood. 

Despite the support of the second line units, the impetus of the Macedonian charge quickly broke the Persian line. Soon, Darius realised the danger and just as he did two years earlier, fled the battlefield. 

Alexander began pursuit immediately, but soon overturned his temptation and rode back to relieve Parmenion's flank. 

Fierce combat still raged on the Macedonian left, when rescue finally came, the remaining Persian forces were soon overwhelmed and routed. 

Although Darius managed to escape yet again, complicating Alexander's political plans to crown himself as the King of Persia, the military power of the Achaemenid Empire was crippled.

Macedonians had the core cities of Mesopotamia and Persia at their fingertips. 

After the brilliant show of his strategic and tactical prowess near Gaugamela, Alexander effectively ended the hegemony of the powerful Persian Empire in less than five years, but its subjugation didn't satiate his lust for power and his story is yet to be continued. 

the best 5 viking leagends

9/11/2019 12:21:00 PM 0
the best 5 viking leagends
WRITTEN BY:  Rida Mohssine
LAST UPDATED:  See Topic History

For hundreds of years the site of a Viking longship on the horizon would strike terror into the hearts of those in its path and simply living by the coast became a risky lifestyle, due to the ever-present danger of Viking raiders. 




Descending on your home to take everything you own along with your very life, yet while Vikings are often depicted as bloodthirsty violent pirates. they were also skilled warriors craftsmen and explorers, who were the first Europeans to discover large parts of the world , which had until then been unexplored.

The blending of myth and fact which surrounds the Viking era, has created legendary characters, whose exploits terrified their victims but left a lasting legacy; which has shaped the modern world here are my choices for five for the most legendary Vikings and the true stories behind them number five:

 Harald Hardrada getting his first taste of battle at just fifteen years of age, the young Harald sigurðsson was unlikely to have had any idea of the life of war, conquest and adventure that lay ahead of him a life ,which would see him participate in battles across much of the known world, fighting in the service of the mighty Byzantine emperors winning. 

The Norwegian throne before ending his life invading the kingdom of England his incredible actions ,and ruthlessness in power earning him the name Harald the hard ruler ,he found himself in a vicious fight for his life when in 1030 AD aged just fifteen, he went to war in the support of his half-brother who was attempting to reclaim the Norwegian throne. 

The attempt failed miserably and ,Harald was badly wounded in the defeat his half-brother killed in action broken and humiliated he was forced into exile and fled to Kiev an Rus, where he served in the army of the Grand Prince yet a hunger for wealth and power would eventually draw him to the legendary imperial city of Constantinople; where he served in the Byzantine emperors elite Varangian Guard, which was a prestigious bodyguard unit made up of Viking warriors, he fought with distinction and rose to become the commander of the guard .

And is thought to have seen action all over the Mediterranean and Middle East ,even becoming entangled in imperial succession disputes and intrigue ,yet his work for the Emperor's had made him incredibly rich wealth which he had why they've been sending back to friends in Kiev and Rus for safekeeping, perhaps in the hope that one day the time might be right to return to his homeland .

The opportunity finally presented itself in 1046 after, the Norwegian throne had passed to his dead half-brothers illegitimate son Magnus the good using the massive fortune he had accumulated to fund his bid for the crown ,Harald returned home however perhaps intimidated by his uncle's reputation Magnus agreed to share power, with Harald until he conveniently died just a year later leaving Harald as the sole ruler of Norway ;yet one crown was not enough for Harald and he spent the next 15 years attempting to seize the Danish throne, his constant warring and tendency to mercilessly crush any dissent at home,  earning him his new title Harald hot-rodder meaning Harald for the hard ruler ;despite successes in battle by 1064 victory had eluded him and he gave up his claims on the Danish throne. 

However just two years later he would once again be at war in January of 1066, the king of England died childless leading to a succession crisis, as several powerful men claimed the throne Harold Godwinson was crowned King of England. Shortly after however his own brother Tostig, along with Duke William of Normandy, and King Harald Hardrada all maintained their own claims and raised armies to win the throne through war Tostig Godwinson brother of the newly chosen English king.

Harold Godwinson decided to pledge his allegiance to Harald Hardrada, and so the two joined forces Harald invaded northern England in September; yet despite scoring some early victories he was defeated and killed at the Battle of Stamford Bridge by Harold Godwinson Sami ,but in the process perhaps a weakened the King of England just enough that he too would later perish in the famous Battle of Hastings at the hands of William the Conqueror allowing William to seize the English throne and changing the course of history forever. 

Harald Hardrada is said to have died a stereotypically Viking death in the thick of battle charging forward in a berserk rage wildly hacking, at the foes who surrounded him until he was struck by an arrow to the throat thus bringing to end not only an extraordinary life ,but the life of the man generally considered to be the last great Viking leader ,that defeats marking the end of the age of the Vikings a warrior culture which had terrorized so much of Europe for so long number ,four Rollo of the countless thousands of Viking warriors who raided European shores just a handful of remembered by name today ,and even fewer left behind a lasting legacy, yet Rollo who would rise from being just another Viking Raider to forging a powerful Duchy, and establishing a dynasty which would see his descendants become Kings his Blood still running through the veins of many of the European monarchs to this day .

Little is known about the man's origins and it's assumed that he was a minor noble in his native land being born in ether Denmark or Norway ,in the sagas he is given the by name the Walker most probably, due to his immense size which made finding a horse strong enough to carry him a difficult task resulting in him being forced to travel on foot, yet his imposing size and fierce presence in battle would help him earn the respect of his men and the dread of his enemies; after a mysterious early life Rollo left Scandinavia to participate in raids on England Scotland and France, hungry to amass riches and power, yet it was the wealthy city of Paris that would become the focus of his attention in 1885 he participated in the Viking siege of Paris sailing up the River Seine, with a force that contained hundreds of ships and tens of thousands of men after surrounding the city tribute was demanded from the trapped Franks ,however despite being massively outnumbered the Franks refused the Vikings launched a furious series of attacks on the city that lasted four days.

However despite siege engines being used the mighty walls of Paris held perhaps frustrated by the lack of progress, many of the Vikings abandon the main force and decided to head further upriver searching for easier prey ,however Rollo stayed behind with his men to continue the siege for several months or until he was finally forced to retreat, when the Frankish king Charles the fat arrived with his imperial army yet after having a taste of the riches France had to offer Rollo refused to leave and would continue raiding French settlements and towns the new Frankish king Charles, the simple encountered Rollo during another siege however despite his name perhaps he was wise enough to recognize the future threat to his lands, that these North men presented despite defeating Rollo in battle, he was impressed by his leadership as well as the ferocity of the warriors he led and so; decided that Rollo might make for a valuable ally instead of a bitter enemy the King offered rather a great swathe of land to the north of Paris, in exchange for ending his raids swearing fealty to him, and protecting his kingdom against the future Viking raids from his people that were sure to come ,Rollo agreed and his Duchy was given the name Normandy meaning north man's land the two men's agreement was sealed by Rollo agreeing to be baptized, a Christian and taking the king's daughter as his wife despite her being perhaps as young as five years old at the time Rollo would prove to be a successful ruler . Cementing control over his new lands and laying the foundations, for the Duchy of Normandy to become one of France's most powerful regions.

His descendants and subjects would become known as the Normans: a people were the formidable reputation who would eventually conquer much of southern Italy and even parts of North Africa,and the Middle East ,yet perhaps his most famous relative would be his great-great-great-grandson William the Conqueror who would lead a successful invasion of England in 1066, and become king after victory at the Battle of Hastings ,it would be through William that Toronto would become a distant ancestor of virtually all modern European monarchies today, as well as many of the claimants to Thrones, which have long since been abolished Rollo finally died in 930 ad and despite having been baptised to Christian, he is said to have died a pagan with one historian claiming that as he sensed his death was close he went mad and beheaded a hundred Christian prisoners in a final defiant act. Committed to honor the Viking gods number three Erik the red most explorers risk their lives for aging , into the unknown on the promise of obtaining fame and fortune lured by the thrill of discovering Uncharted lands and seeing what's no other man has seen before yet.

Erik the red did not have such lofty ambitions and was instead left with no other choice but to sail west to the icy and unexplored wilderness of Greenland, as his tendency for murdering those who he had disagreements with, led to his presence no longer being tolerated in more civilized society.

Killing as a method of conflict resolution seems to have been in his blood aged rs10 ,Eric and his family were banished from the native Norway after according to the sagas his father committed what is vaguely described as a number of killings ,and they were forced to start a new life in northwestern Iceland ,yet it would not be long until Erik followed in his father's footsteps, while working on the land a group of Erik slaves accidentally triggered a landslide on his neighbor's farm, which destroyed the man's house enraged the damage the neighbor slaughtered the slaves responsible for the damage, yet it seems as though Erik took offense to the man-killing people who would deemed to be his property he retaliated by attacking his neighbor killing him along with another member of the clan, yet rather than risk a blood feud or perhaps doubting their ability to take the ferocious man down in combat the kinsmen of the dead neighbor took the legal route demanding that he instead be banished.

Erik was forced to flee to a nearby island leaving some sacred beams of wood, he had inherited from his father in the care of a friend; however, when he later returned to collect the prized items , his friend refused to hand them over. Erik decided to take them back by force and in the resulting fight killed the man's two sons along, with several other men once again Erik could have been involved in bloodshed, and in 982 ad the local assembly exiled him from Iceland for a period of three years.

He was now an outlaw in both, his native Norway and his adopted home of Iceland, there seemed to be no place left for him in the civilized world ,and so he decided to sail to the mysterious and unexplored lands to the west which are the Norse before ,him hand sail to but none had dared settle he spent his 3-year exile charting ,the coast of Greenland and scouting the ice-covered landmass for suitable locations for farming and hunting, before finally finding an area in the southwest that seemed relatively ice-free,with his exile over he returned to Iceland, with the intention of gathering more men and ships to establish the first permanent settlement, yet he knew he would need to attract as many people as possible to make the venture a success .

And so he conjured up stories of a place called Greenland, which seemed far more appealing than the ice, Laden reality yet this act of marketing worked luring hundreds of people to follow him across the sea in 986 A.D .

Erik the Red ended his days as chieftain of the colony, which would eventually grow to hold 5000 people, yet a history of murder and the foundation of Greenland's first Norse settlement were not his only legacy ,his son Leif Ericson would go on to become widely viewed as the first European to explore North America over 500 years, before Columbus embarked on his famous voyage to the New World number 2 Ragnar lothbrok the tales associated with the legendary Norse hero Ragnar lothbrok vary from being the son of 

Kings Raider of powerful Christian kingdoms.
 Husband to famous shield maidens looter of Paris father of famous Viking warlords, such as I for the boneless and even the descendant of Odin the North Scott of war yet are the accounts of Ragnar based ,upon the exploits of a real man an amalgamation of several different warriors or just a made-up myth designed to inspire, according to legend Ragnar was born the son of Sigurd ring who was the king of both Sweden and Denmark and obtained the by name lothbrok which means heavy breeches; due to the animal skin trousers he supposedly wore although he is said to have claimed descent from Odin stories of a ferocious Viking warrior wreaking ,havoc across 9th century Europe a widespread among several different sources and his name is most closely linked with a series of merciless raids against France and England, which would have made him a wealthy and powerful man, he favored attacking lightly guarded monasteries ,which provided easy but rich pickings as well as targeting Christians while they were occupied with religious celebrations ,yet he also proved himself to be a formidable warrior and leader attacking, and defeating powerful armies and well-fortified towns with perhaps his most legendary deed being the capture of Paris in 845 .

With a fleet of long ships he sailed up the river son looting and plundering as he went before, finally reaching the fabled city of Paris in the beating heart of France the French King Charles the bald grandson of the mighty Charlemagne was defeated by Ragnar ,and Paris fell with the humiliated King forced to hand over ,and I watering seven thousand pounds of silver to ignore in exchange for leaving yet despite amassing such unbelievable levels of wealth Ragnar's raids against European shorelines continued earning him powerful enemies eventually his luck would run out and after being shipwrecked on the English coast during the storm he was captured in Northumbria by King Ayla and executed in a manner which sealed his legendary status furious of the raids regnal had carried out in his lands King aehlert dreamt up the most painful and humiliating death he could think of punishing the upstart Viking by having him thrown into a pit of vipers the fall breaking his bones and leaving him to be slowly bitten and poisoned to death by the vicious snakes according to the Icelandic legends Ragnar faced death with pride pleased that he would soon be entering the gates of Valhalla before issuing a final prophetic warning of the fate that awaited King Ayla and England when the news of his death reached his sons how the little piglets would grunt if they knew how the old bore suffered confidently predicting the bloody vengeance his sons would visit upon Ayla and the kingdoms of England ,it's through his sons that Ragnar's legacy would continue fathering many men who became famous warriors in their own rights including, Bjorn Ironside who would explore and raid the Mediterranean and the feared I, for the boneless who along with his brothers would lead the great heathen army across the North Sea to avenge Ragnar 

Conquering large sections of England and establishing the Danelaw a portion of northern England, that was governed by the laws of the danes and would be settled by large numbers of Vikings, whether Ragnar was a real man emerging of multiple characters or simply a myth his name still echoes through the ages has become a hero amongst his own people ,but a devil amongst those whose suffering he caused number one Iver the boneless an intriguing mixture of mystery and incredible brutality makes Iver the boneless ,perhaps the most famous Viking of all time with the man himself becoming legendary, for his cunning and cruelty his conquests would spread fear terror and destruction across the British Isles as he executed a bloody plan of revenge that would see entire swaths of the country fall under his control ,countless thousands perish and battle and even great Kings mercilessly put two incredibly savage deaths at his hands there were several theories regarding, how Ivar obtained his famous nickname with the most popular being that he suffered from some form of bone disease, that made him prone to breaks and fractures leaving him unable to walk ,however the name could have been given to him because of his flexibility in combat or simply because he was impotent there have even been theories that the name could have been a mistranslation from, either the despicable to boneless as the two words in Latin are very similar, yet if he did suffer from some kind of disability it did not prevent him from becoming an intimidating warrior, who inspired the army under his command to achieve great victories.

 In 865 Ivar and his brothers assembled what became known as the great heathen army an unprecedented gathering of Viking warriors ,from all over Scandinavia which possibly numbered in the tens of thousands, according to legend the army was put together to exact revenge on the English king of Northumbria who supposedly executed, Ivor's father the famous Ragnar lothbrok by having him thrown into a pit of snakes,  however whether or not this is true is unknown at this time Northumbria was embroiled in a civil war a conflict which I ,far and the North would have been well aware of and so it's possible that the invasion of England was carried out to simply take advantage of this weakness ,yet the sheer size and scale of the invasion thus suggests that it was motivated by personal reasons .

Rather than just a desire for land and wealth regardless of its intention ,the most destructive and violent invasion of England had begun life Asami quickly captured the Northumbrian capital of York , defeated the English army and captured King Ayla the man who was responsible for his father's death, for such a crime against his family only the most gruesome and painful revenge would do ,and I for his thought to have had Aguilar killed using the blood eagle.

A terrifying Viking method of execution ,which involved cutting the victims back open breaking the rib bones one by one with an axe ,before pulling out the lungs to form a gory wing-like shape draped across the back some sources even suggest that at this point the victim might still be alive, and would be forced to endure the unbelievable agony of having salt rubbed into the Giants open wound before they finally died whether or not this is true remains debated ,but what is known is that Ivor carved a bloody path across England displaying not only a genius, like understanding of battle tactics and strategy but also a disturbingly brutal streak in the treatment of his enemies, perhaps using such excessive cruelty as an extension of his battle strategy.

The fear accompanying his name often forcing potential enemies ,to surrender without a fight in one such example of this excessive level of violence ,after taking the kingdom of East Anglia the former King Edmund was beaten with clubs tied to a tree, and shot full of arrows before being beheaded and having his lifeless head thrown unceremoniously into a nearby ditch all because he refused to become a vassal, and renounce his faith the conquests and raids carried out by ivor continued all over England ,Ireland, and Scotland ,where monasteries and towns were destroyed civilians slaughtered and settlements pillaged on an unbelievable scale ,with the vast amounts of plunder and slaves taken making their way back to aivars base of operations in Dublin making him extraordinarily rich in the process the circumstances of aivars death, are disputed but it's thought that he lived to a surprisingly old age before finally succumbing to a non violent death, unlike the thousands of unfortunate people who died horribly as a result of his invasion the people of the British Isles breathing a collective sigh of relief as I; for the boneless finally passed from this world.

So those are my choices four or five of the most legendary Vikings and the true stories behind them, let me know your thoughts and which other interesting Vikings you would have mentioned in the list in the comments below, and I'll see you again soon. 

9.10.2019

Gladiators from Ancient Rome

9/10/2019 11:45:00 PM 0
Gladiators from Ancient Rome
WRITTEN BY:  Rida Mohssine
LAST UPDATED:  See Topic History

Purchase two slaves, ancient Roman gladiators were seen as the superstars of the day. 


Their battles gathered massive audiences and the most skilled fighters would win over the crowd and even their freedom, if they amassed enough victories, these are the names and feeds of the most famous Roman gladiators who were considered the best of their time.

While some gladiators specialized at dueling other fighters, others particularly excelled at combating wild beasts, these were known as best Yari in Kapaa.

 Firuze was one of the best, the fights were so dangerous that the life expectancy for these beast fighters was just one or two fights. 

Kappa Firuze however would routinely face off against vicious wild animals such as lions, bears, leopards and even rhinos, his personal best and the crowd favorite performance came when he managed to kill twenty different beasts in a single battle.

Enslaved by the Romans under unknown circumstances Crixus used to be a Gallic gladiator who enjoyed noteworthy success against notably bigger opponents in battle arenas. 

In 73 B.C Crixus was part of what started as a small slave revolt in the gladiatorial training school of Lent Earnest Batiatus at kapwa, in which about 70 gladiators escaped. 

He then played an important role in defeating a small group of soldiers, sent the quell their rebellion with these early successes near 150,000 fellow slaves joined his ranks and Crixus became one of the leaders of the rebellion, along with Spartacus and away no mouse by the end of 73 B.C Crixus and about 30,000 followers separated from Spartacus because they wanted to pillage southern Italy.

However the Roman armies killed Crixus before he could get revenge, on his present flama is one of the biggest names in the history of ancient Roman. 

Gladiators before riskier as a gladiator started he was a Syrian soldier who got captured and forced to fight in what would become the sport he excelled at using a small sword and a shield and armor on one half of his body. 

He terrorized his opponents for about 13 years in battles that attracted the biggest number of spectators climbers.

His love for the arena was so strong that he rejected freedom offers made by Roman politicians four times, the Syrian 1433 clashes before finally meeting his end on the sands of the Coliseum at the age of thirty, by then his popularity was so extensive that his face was being used on a Roman coin, Tetra this first came to the knowledge of historians after graffiti about him was discovered in the ruins of pompei that he was apparently renowned across the Empire.

He was a popular gladiator who fought in the more villainous style of combat, bare- chested wielding only a sword a rectangle shield and a helmet, since he used the more mellowness method of combat he was probably from Thrace or Gaul his fame skyrocketed when he defeated another champion gladiator known as Prutas.

The three artists one of the greatest gladiators in the history of Rome his name was carved into glass vessels found in the countries that are now France, Hungary and England.

When the inaugural games were held to celebrate the opening of the Flavian Amphitheater in the first century A.D one of the featured contests was a battle between the gladiators Priscus and Verus the two, each had won a number of fights in their careers but they're mostly known for their legendary final fight in which they battled each other after fighting for hours, they both acknowledged defeat at the same instant, the two warriors simultaneously put down their weapons and surrendered in respect of the other skills, touched by their sportsmanship the emperor Titus awarded victory to both of them and granted them their freedom as the crowd shared vigorously.

Born in Thrace located in modern-day Bulgaria in northeastern Turkey by 73 B.C Spartacus had become a slave and was taken to a gladiatorial school in southern Italy to be trained soon, he helped to mastermind a rebellion that ended with 70 gladiators escaping from the school, all of them well armed with makeshift weapons, once free Spartacus and the gladiators escaped to Mount Vesuvius and along the way looked to free everyone they could that was enslaved in any way by the Roman Empire.

For two years he fought against the Romans with his army growing to over 70,000 slaves which made him one of the most powerful men in ancient Rome, Spartacus proved to be an excellent tactician, it went on to defeat Roman legions sent to capture him on more than six different occasions, but in 71 B.C Marcus Licinius Crassus put an end to the rebel forces with a well-trained army of 50,000 in a final act of cruelty Crassus crucified 6,000 prisoners along the Via Appia from kapwa to Rome.

One of the gladiator names known around the world is Maivia one of the few female gladiators rather than being on equal ground as the male gladiators, Maivia was used as an erotic attraction and was known for fighting wild animals such as boars, while armed with a spear it was reported that she fought topless which made her quite the spectacle, during the gladiator battles Maivia became so famous for this that even sculptures of her and action were made.




From keeping the fear within the ranks to having amazing weapons, here are 10 facts about the Roman Military.