2019-09-15 - INTHEPROF


The old Egypt : Summarized history

9/20/2019 04:41:00 PM 0
The old Egypt : Summarized history

In ancient Egypt, myths and history go together like sugar and arsenic powder, or was it arsenic powder and sugar? Oh oh Crap! What I mean is they can be hard to distinguish and if you do get them confused you're probably going to have a bad time. 

Egyptian history can get really complicated and uncertain since it's become so heavily mythologized due to [A] thousands of years of less than stellar records; [B] the tendency for the desert to kind of swallow important pieces of archaeological evidence, as it does; and [C] a tendency for ancient Pharaohs to both erase the legacies of their predecessors and deliberately mythologize themselves. 

As a result, we have a very strong sense of the aesthetic of ancient Egypt without having much to go on - on the actual historical front. Well, there's a lot more to ancient Egypt than just these myths, so let's dig in and try to separate the facts from the fables. 

Now interestingly, one of the myths about Egypt we should dispel first is that it's "too mysterious". One of the most common instances of this particular myth is the idea that we have no idea what ancient Egyptians really looked like and there is some truth to this. 

You see Egyptian art had very little realism in it. First off, they use this thing called "hieratic scaling" which meant the more important something was, the bigger it was represented. 

They also put a lot of work into making every character represented complete, in a way. 
See, there was this idea that the paintings or representations of you, determine how you'd look and function in the afterlife. 
As a result, you got that weird pseudo profile art style that showed the face and profile but the eye from the front, always made a point to show all ten fingers on anyone, show the torso from the front, but the legs from the side, you know, all that good stuff. 

It was meant to show the body in full so the person wouldn't be missing anything important when they died. 

Then why were their faces in profile? Because profiles are pretty, damn it! Anyway, the third thing in Egyptian art was that the colors used weren't representative or realistic in any way because in Egypt, the colors had meanings; black meant good things like order, life, and fertility since black was the color of the Nile silt that made the banks of the river so fertile; green meant fertility too but specifically it was representative of plant growth and agriculture. In fact, this is why Osiris is green, of all colors to paint him. 

Not just because he's dead but because he's a god of agriculture, growth, and change. Beyond that, blue meant the sky; Gold meant the sun; and red meant the desert, which was also representative of Chaos. 

The inherent meaning in these colors is why we have such a technicolor array of people represented in Egyptian artwork but before the inevitable cries of "well see we don't really know what the Egyptians looked like so it's totally cool that we make them all White in any given Hollywood production because you don't know that they weren't", I'd like to inform you that we actually *do* know that a significant portion of the Egyptian population was Nubian which meant that they look like this. 

Christian Bale does not look like this. Nubian society had contact with Egypt as early as 6000 BC That's more than three thousand years before the upper and lower kingdoms unified into what we considered the old kingdom. 

3,000 years mind you, is one metric western history and by 1800 BC in the Middle Kingdom, Nubia had officially been conquered by Egypt and to a large degree, culturally subsumed. It wasn't until 300 BC that Egypt got Greek-ed and White-ified, so while we don't know what the 'original' Ancient Egyptian population looked like before there was an Ancient Egypt, we can make a number of educated guesses as to what the population probably looked like after 3,000 years of regular contact and cultural fusion with these fine folks Suck it, Hollywood! So now the broad context is out of the way let's dispel some more specific myths right off the bat first up Egyptians were not as obsessed with death as they're commonly portrayed, in fact there's plenty of evidence to the contrary We think that they were always on about death because the most lavish and detailed archeological finds we have are all the things that got buried underground in huge easily preserved stone structures we have no idea how much other stuff that had nothing to do with death either got yanked by an enterprising thief, worn away by the literal sands of time or otherwise destroyed. 

On that note: pyramids. I touched on this briefly earlier. See, before Egypt, there was kind of two "Egypt"s: Upper and Lower Kingdoms. 

This stopped being a thing around 3100 BC when King Narmer conquered the Lower Kingdom, fused the two crowns together into one super crown and made Egypt a thing in one fell swoop. 

After that Egypt's timeline is roughly split between three periods: the Old, Middle, and New Kingdom each of which ended with a brief intermediary period of internal schisming and chaos which we'll get into all of that later. 

The pyramids were overwhelmingly made in the earliest period: some four and a half thousand years ago. 

The Middle Kingdom rolled in around 2000 BC and it wasn't until the New Kingdom happened in 1500 that some of Egypt's most famous figures like King Tut and Rameses showed up. 

This means that Egypt's most iconic rulers lived a full thousand years away from Egypt's most famous structures and Cleopatra, arguably the most famous Egyptian, lived another full millennium after even that. 

Damn. But while we're on the subject of the pyramids it's important to know that they probably weren't built by slaves as far as we could tell. This claim comes to us by way of Herodotus But for all he did, he isn't the most trustworthy source by any stretch. 

The dude is self-admitted to telling the absolute craziest stories he comes across. 
This claim is probably false because, among other things we found a chamber full of the buried builders inside the pyramid and, contrary to the popular belief, servants and slaves weren't typically allowed the honor of being buried with their Pharaoh. Instead, he was interned with statues of servants called shabtis which would serve him in the afterlife without all the mess of you know burying people alive too. 
Effectively, we're saying that slaves would not have been buried in the pyramid, leading credence to the idea that they likely weren't slaves.
Also, chemical analysis reveal that these builders ate beef which was a delicacy in Egypt which leads us to believe that they were well respected and highly skilled builders rather than simple slaves. And don't get me wrong the peasant class was absolutely conscripted into building monuments pretty regularly, but the pyramids were something else. 

And while we're on the slavery point let's confront the elephant in the room to say that there's pretty much no evidence that the ancient Israelites were enslaved in Egypt and decent evidence that they weren't. if two million Jewish slaves, a sizeable chunk of the population mind you, just walked away, the Egyptian economy would have been devastated for centuries, but the second millennium had a thriving economy which we wouldn't expect to see in the aftermath of Exodus. 

There's also no biological evidence of a sizable Jewish population in Egypt, nor any archaeological evidence of an actual migration out of Egypt. 
Also, the Egyptian court at this point was pretty decent at keeping records, so you'd expect that we'd see something, anything, from anyone about this sudden and shocking development. But, there's no record of it anywhere and as a result, the general consensus is that Exodus, while a great story that serves many clever literary and theological purposes wonderfully, Probably isn't directly grounded in historical fact But then again, what is these days? Egypt was also a very structured society. 
See, the Nile flooded regularly. So regularly that it was what defined their seasons and by extension defined their agricultural life. 
The first season, Akhet, was the flood season which made the ground fertile, next came Peret where they planted, and Shemu where they harvested. 
That degree of regularity was found nowhere else in Africa, and the rigidity of the structure seems to have propagated into their society as well. 
There was something of a caste system and while it wasn't totally rigid, if you were born a peasant, your only hope of elevating yourself to the level of craftsmen or bureaucrat was either learn an art, or learn to write. 

Neither one was easy and even then there was no hope of becoming a priest if you weren't born one, let alone Pharaoh. 
Weirdly enough, despite the caste system, there was a surprising amount of equal opportunity between men and women. In fact, a famed Athenian physician named Agnodice traveled to Egypt specifically to learn medicine, where it was totally allowed. 

But when she returned to Athens she had to dress like a man in order to practice because Athens had made being a female doctor punishable by death. 

Why? Well, let's just say they had a pro-life stance as long as that life didn't belong to a woman who disagreed with them on that subject. 
Because Athens was misogynist as hell. But getting back to Egypt. In anthropology, there is the fun kind of myths, which is more Red's department, And then there are those myths that obstruct fact: the ones that you have to wade through and hope to God that in a couple decades or centuries people just stop believing in. 

Egypt is terribly prone to be mythologized on account of not having very much of what we'd call "history" in its earlier half. 

Egypt, ever eager to imitate the calm predictability of its Nile River, lived a remarkably calm, quiet life of isolation in its first 2,000 years, barring the one time they conquered Nubia. It wasn't until the new kingdom between the 16th and 11th centuries B.C.E that they actually do anything in the way of expansion or outside interaction. 

We do know a bit about what some pharaohs were like, but that's mostly the later ones, you see because Pharaohs in the early and some of the middle periods generally really enjoyed purging things related to their predecessors upon their becoming Pharaoh. Couple that with the fact that any lasting evidence about these Pharaohs all got thrown underground and most of it got subsequently stolen, and we're really not left with a lot to go on. 

There are a solid 2,000 years where we can really do little more than point to the pyramids and Egyptian mythology And people are naturally going to want to fill in those blanks, and I mean who wouldn't? Much like our understanding of why on Earth The Mummy is getting a reboot, there's a lot that's unknown What we do know, we know from geography, specifically: water. Egypt exists because of the Nile. 

Without the Nile, there was no Egypt. 
The Nile was a calm river that flooded regularly and was wonderfully easy to manage. It allowed for what's called basin irrigation, which was cheap and not labor-intensive for individual farmers who worked the land. 
That said, organizing the large-scale construction of an agricultural system along the Nile doesn't happen overnight, and it's the reason Egypt ever had kings. 

The so-called Despotic state theory says that any society dependent on a widespread system of agriculture requires coordination to make it possible, and coordination can only come from the central power, namely, the Pharaoh. Since there was one body of water and everyone basically lived no more than a mile away from it at most, Egypt was supremely easy for one government to monitor and regulate In fact Egypt had a structural advantage to centralization that most other African kingdoms lacked, which is that the borders were geographically defined. 

Other African kingdoms located south of the Sahara Grew Outward through livable terrain and basically stopped when it became impractical to communicate with the outer border. 
The presence of the king had to be felt in order for a kingdom to remain a kingdom, so once the king was a distant voice with some 30-day lag in news or orders, he stopped feeling like a king and the people who lived out there stopped treating him like one. 
Egypt just didn't have that problem because the livable area was small and manageable already. 
You knew the government was present because their ships patrolled up and down the Nile all damn day. As a result, Egypt was a single centralized society. 

This is completely distinct from Egypt's contemporary Mesopotamia which was structured as a collective of City-States dotted around the fertile crescent. 

Mesopotamia, literally "between two rivers" in the Greek, was an area sandwiched between two, main Rivers (which I... just said) with a series of small channels running between them. This setup made it impossible for one society to effectively control the others and as a result, a series of small independent City-States sprang up. These polis-style civilizations, like Mesopotamia, later ancient Greece, and medieval Northern Italy to name a few, all follow this pattern of a network of Independent City-States springing up around interconnected waterways, specializing in certain crafts, and trading with each other like mad Point is, Egypt isn't that and despite our general lack of historical intrigue from the old and middle stages of the Kingdom, we know a lot about its economic and developmental history. 

For the sake of completeness, Egypt's rough chronology goes as follows: the old kingdom from 2700 to 2200 B.C.E was the building stage when Egypt sorted out its agricultural system and had a go at making giant stone polyhedrons. Near the end of the period there was a severe famine, which resulted in the government being unceremoniously toppled (like a cat tipping over a canopic jar and spilling guts everywhere). 

The century and a half period of political strife that ensued was the first intermediary period. 

Yet, oddly there was a concurrent boom in writing and art. After some light civil warring in the absence of any convincing government, Theban society stepped up, kicked ass, and became the new rulers of Egypt in the Middle Kingdom. In the Middle Kingdom, from 2100 to 1700 B.C.E., modest land expansion and a more secure supply of resources helped promote an economic and especially cultural flourishing. 

Literature started cropping up, for one, and also sculptures in relief became an increasingly common and visually appealing way to depict characters in detail. 
The period drew to a close upon an invasion by the Hyksos, a people of mixed heritage from probably West Asia, who usurped the pharaoh and ruled the kingdom for over a century. 
More civil warring ensued and once the Hyksos were expelled, the Egyptians, understandably shaken from being invaded for pretty much the first time ever and definitely not wanting to let that happen again, resolved to push out in every direction and also went way east across the Sinai peninsula and into the Lavant. 

This marks the onset of the New Kingdom which lasted from about 1550 to 1150 B.C.E., In the beginning, the New Kingdom was a party as trade routes were re-established, serious diplomatic relationships became a thing for the first time, and more and more land was being conquered Most of the pharaohs you're familiar with are from this period, as the historical records get better as time goes on. 

One such pharaoh was Hatshepsut, and she was awesome. Not only was she the one to thank for setting up all those sweet trade routes, but she was also a prolific builder, almost ordering more construction projects than any other pharaoh. 
The things she made were so impressive her successors regularly took credit for them. That's how you know it's good. 

This was a bit of a recurring theme in ancient Egypt. Pharaohs trying to wipe out all memory of earlier rulers for the sake of glorifying their own image. 
Talk about a Mary Sue, am I right? During the new Kingdom, the pharaohs made a concerted effort to elevate the prestige of a local god, Amun, to a national level. 
Syncretizing him with a Sun god to become Amun-Ra, crafting the image of the all-powerful Sun god that we instinctively picture today. 
This was cool because Amun-Ra is great, but one asshole decided he wanted to ruin the fun for everyone and his name was Akhenaten. 

He not only engaged in the typical jackassery of wiping away the legacy of past pharaohs, but he also warmed wipe out all other gods except his buddy the Sun God, Aten, often pretty much only because Akhenaten didn't like the temple of Amun, and how powerful they were getting. 
His son Tutankhaten thanks to being urging of those very same Amun priests indulged in some healthy teenage rebellion and changed his name to Tutankhamun as well as restoring the old gods to their original status after that Egypt just collectively decided that this whole Akhenaten episode never happened. Aside from that King Tut didn't really do much of anything before dying of something rather the reason he's so famous nowadays Is that he's the one whose tomb wasn't robbed. 

British Archaeologists found it entirely intact some [3,000] years later or at least entirely intact before they got their hands all over it and started breaking precious artifacts yeah Yeah Boo. 
Anyway, almost all other tombs have been wiped clean by robbers centuries ago And the fact that his wasn't is a big enough deal to warrant his fame Another famous Pharaoh is Ramses II who is right next to Hatshepsut on the list of most successful pharaohs ever below of course Yami-Yugi Ramses waged multiple military campaigns and built a splendid assortment of temples and monuments However as Egypt grew in magnificence more and more foreign people wanted a piece of the proverbial pie So Egypt started to fall prey to numerous invasions both small and large While daily life for the average Joe Egyptian remained mostly unchanged Egypt's power gradually declined and multiple different foreign powers conquered Egypt during the four hundred year period, most notably the Assyrians. 

After the Assyrians the Achaemenid Persians stepped in and three hundred years after that Egypt came under the control of Alexander the Great and his Macedonian cohort Macedonians made a point not to try and Hellenize Egypt instead, fully promoting Egyptian culture as a way to keep the people on their side and having the Greeks rule with continued use of Egyptian offices and titles like Pharaoh. 

This last section of Egyptian history is covered rather well by Shakespeare who's covered rather well by Red So give a look over there if you want to know this in more detail But the short of it is that Cleopatra. the last pharaoh of Egypt. was an all-around cool and especially cunning character. 

Among other things she was described by most contemporary accounts as an incredibly intelligent witty and charming conversation partner which later got [burglarized?] into to her being a beautiful seductress who twisted the minds of men with her boobs to explain how she got all these powerful men to ally with her and also bang maybe. 

Despite most contemporary imagery showing her to be a pretty normal-looking lady. There are straight-up scholarly Archaeological debates about whether this powerful and ruthless queen was a 6 or a 10 because clearly, we have priorities Can't we just appreciate one of the most powerful women in the ancient world for something besides her looks? She comes on with Julius Caesar the night he casually burned down the library of Alexandria in order to cement an alliance with him and then after he bit it in the senate she moved on to his adopted son Octavian's enemy Mark Antony Octavian chased Mark Antony and Cleopatra to Egypt where they ran off and later killed themselves after each coming to terms with their defeat at the hands of Octavian. 

Egypt, now pharaohless, became a province of Rome for several centuries where upon it was conquered by the Islamic Caliphate in 7th century, the Ottomans in the 16th century, the British in the late 19th century, all the way up to 1953 when for the first time in close to 3,000 years Egypt was once again ruled by native ethnic Egyptians How insane is this to wrap our heads around? An empire that lived for almost 3,000 years, all before western history as we know it even existed, only to spend almost all of that subsequent western history under some form of foreign rule Damn. 

The pyramids are older to the Romans than the Romans are to us. Cleopatra lived closer to spaceflight than she did to the building of the pyramids. That's all the time I have for today because I need to go and bandage my poor brain 


What Dark Energy and Dark Matter?

9/19/2019 06:35:00 PM 0
What Dark Energy and Dark Matter?

What Dark Energy and Dark Matter?

Matter, as we know it; Atoms, stars, and galaxies, planets, and trees, rocks and us. This matter accounts for less than 5% of the known universe.      

  Dark Matter                                Dark Energy      

About 25% is dark matter, and 70% is dark energy. Both of which are invisible. This is kind of strange because it suggests that everything we experience is really only a tiny fraction of reality. 

But it gets worse. We really have no clue what dark matter and energy are, or how they work. We are pretty sure they exist though. So, what do we know? 

Dark matter is the stuff that makes it possible for galaxies to exist. When we calculated why the universe is structured the way it is, it quickly became clear that there's just not enough normal matter. 

The gravity of the visible matter is not strong enough to form galaxies and complex structures. 

The stars would more likely be scattered all over the place and not form galaxies. So, we know there is something else inside and around them. Something that doesn't emit or reflect light. 

Something dark... but besides being able to calculate the existence of dark matter, we can see it... kind of. Places with a high concentration of dark matter bend light passing nearby. 

So we know there's something there that interacts with gravity. Right now, we have more ideas about what dark energy is not than what it is! We know dark matter is not just clouds of normal matter without stars, because it would emit particles we could detect. 

Dark matter is not anti-matter, because anti-matter produces unique gamma rays when it reacts with normal matter. Dark matter is also not made up of black holes, very compact objects that violently affect their surroundings, while dark matter seems to be scattered all over the place. 

Basically, we only know 3 things for sure; 

1. Something is out there. 

2. It interacts with gravity. 

3. There is a lot of it. 

Dark matter is probably made up of a complicated exotic particle that doesn't interact with light and matter in a way we expect, but right now, we just don't know. 

Dark energy is even more strange and mysterious. We can't detect it, we can't measure it and we can't taste it. But we do see its effects very clearly. 

In 1929, Edward Hubble examined how the wavelength of light emitted by distant galaxies, shifts towards the red end of the electromagnetic spectrum as it travels through space. 

He found that fainter, more distant galaxies showed a large degree of redshift; closer galaxies, not so much. 

Hubble determined that this was because the universe itself is expanding. 

The redshift occurs because the wavelengths of light are stretched as the universe expands.

More recent discoveries have shown that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. Before that, it was thought that the pull of gravity would cause the expansion to either slow down or even retract and collapse in on itself at some point. 

Space doesn't change its properties as it expands; there's just more of it. 

New space is constantly created everywhere, galaxies are tight bound clusters of stuff held together by gravity so we don't experience this expansion in our daily lives. But we see it everywhere around us. 

Wherever there is empty space in the universe, more is forming every second. So, dark energy seems to be some kind of energy intrinsic to empty space. 

Energy is stronger than anything else we know and it keeps getting stronger as time passes by. 

Empty space has more energy than everything else in the universe combined. 

We have multiple ideas about what dark energy might be. One idea is, the dark energy is not a thing, but just a property of space. Empty space is nothing, it has its own energy. It can generate more space and is quite active. 

So, as the universe expands, it could be that just more and more space appears to fill the gaps and this leads to a faster-expanding universe. 

This idea is close to an idea that Einstein had back in 1917, of the concept of a cosmological constant, a force that counteracted the force of gravity. 

The only problem is, that when we tried to calculate the amount of this energy the result was so wrong and weird, that it only added to the confusion. 

Another idea is, that empty space is actually full of temporary, virtual particles that spontaneously and continually form from nothing and then disappear into nothing again. The energy form those particles could be dark energy. 

Or maybe dark energy is an unknown kind of dynamic energy fluid or field which permeates the entire universe, but somehow has the opposite effect on the universe than normal energy and matter. But if it exists, we don't know how and where or how we could detect it. So there are still a lot of questions to answer. 

Our theories about dark matter and dark energy are still just that; theories. On one hand, this is kind of frustrating, on the other hand, this is frontier science making it very exciting. 

It shows us that no matter how much we feel we're on top of things, we are still very much apes with smartphones, on a tiny fragile island in space looking into the sky wondering how our universe works There is so much left to learn, and that is awesome. 


Future Weapons

9/17/2019 01:46:00 PM 0
Future Weapons

Future Weapons

Weapons and warfare are getting more and more subtle with the newest piece of land technology 

Is beginning to look a lot of sort of a video game with wirelessly connected troopers act via sound and vision to drones carrying satellite-linked Wi-Fi hotspots and given orders by commanders that might air the opposite facet of the planet however the weapons of the longer term will not want troopers or commanders to work as a result of they'll be ready to create the choice of what or whom to focus on themselves exploitation computer science. 

The Pentagon is disbursement $ billions on developing a replacement generation of deadly autonomous weapons or LAWS like robotic fighter jets, missiles that decide what to attack ships however hunt enemy submarines. 

For currently remote weapons like UAVs or pilotless aerial vehicles square measure directed by humans from the security of cubicles typically tons of or thousands of miles far from a conflict zone and intrinsically any call to use deadly force is often created by someone. 

But before we have a tendency to begin thinking Skynet goes to require over and we have a tendency to'll have terminators roaming around we square measure still an extended approach from the Hollywood version of A.I. though we've got seen the newest generation of robots just like the Hub of the Universe Dynamics Atlas and it's uncanny ability to steer and move sort of a human we cannot be seeing a military of robotic troopers anytime shortly. 

Whilst we expect of A.I. getting used with the newest hardware. the u.  s. Air Force is functioning on the exploitation of older craft refitted with autonomous controls. 

The project that is termed "Loyal Wingman" sees retired f-16 reused and fitted with enough autonomy so they might fly aboard the newest f-35's and take cues from a personality's pilot in another craft even as if a true airplane pilot were there and doubtless before driverless cars can create it onto the general public roads. 

Autonomous missiles square measure {an square measurea|a neighborhood|a district|a region|a locality|a vicinity|a part|a section} that are already in use with systems just like the British fireplace forget native sulfur missiles. Once it's been fit with target data it will work on its own to pick the most effective target and collaborate for up to twenty-four different missiles to coordinate a staggered attack against swarms of enemy vehicles or boats and it cannot notice a target it'll destroy. Drones square measure another massive space for military A.I. 

The Israel part Industries HAROP could be a little anti-radiation drone that is additionally referred to as the "suicide drone" it will keep mobile on top of a battlespace for up to 6 hours trying to find specific radio transmission sort of a radiolocation supply or enemy defense system, however, in theory, might seek for things sort of a specific signal from a transportable. 

The HAROP can be a point on the signal and deliberately crash into and destroy the target of it's aboard payload. 
Meanwhile, DARPA, the military analysis arm of the Pentagon has additionally unveiled the "Sea Hunter" Associate in Nursing autonomous surface vessel that's designed to remain stumped for months and track even quietly submarines anyplace within the world as a result of it's designed to not have any human crew throughout its operation. 

It should navigate busy shipping lanes Associate in Nursingd act with an intelligent human opponent all by itself then communicate the information back to its center or take the suitable action if it were to be armed. tho' these systems will add Associate in Nursing autonomous mode the new generation of A.I. weapons can take this to ensuing stage rather than being shown a target or partly pilotless these new weapons can go and appearance for targets and choose whether or not or to not destroy them with none human intervention recently government agency showed a system employing a drone that might be bought from amazon once loaded with new A.I. package it becomes a golem that may then hunt and establish armed men with AK-47's during a simulation of a middle-eastern village at a military testing place the U.S. 

It was even capable of finding armed men once they were hidden within the shadows if this technique were to be armed just like the HAROP or be ready to guide a missile to the target it might become a formidable searching system. 

This sort of factor was once preserved of Hollywood however it'll be dominant the longer-term autonomous weapons at intervals years instead of decades these new weapons would provide unmatched speed and preciseness over any human system and is currently being referred to as the largest step-change since the creation of powder and nuclear weapons. 

Although this technology can offer the sting to the America and their allies which will be transitory as others square measure finance heavily during this space and in contrast to the event of the fission bomb that needed technologies that were terribly tough to make, are often} principally software-driven which suggests it can be a great deal easier to develop given the programming resources. Once this has been done they might be cheaply factory-made by any important military power that additionally means that they might simply notice their approach into the hands of knave states or extremists. Aerial vehicles like drones. 

UAVs and missiles are going to be the primary to use this however their square measure already entails such weapons to be illegal as a result of the issues over there moral and legal position. 

If Associate in Nursing autonomous weapon committed a law-breaking WHO would be accountable if no human-made the choice. Some say that deadly autonomous weapons can decrease casualties as a result of they'll be programmed to follow rules of engagement strictly and analyze the case logically. 

They don't have emotions they do not get tired, stressed or distracted sort of human competent might and thus they're less possible to create mistakes and kill civilians. 

Whatever your views you'll wear it there's Associate in Nursing inexorable drive for AI within the military and therefore the rise of the robots has already started.


The 8 Real Badass Women From History

9/16/2019 07:22:00 PM 0
The 8 Real  Badass Women From History

8 Real  Badass Women From History 

It's International Women's Day on 8 March while it's also Women's History Month too


BOUDICCA [Boo-de-ca] In 60AD the lands of Ancient British Queen Boudicca were conquered by the Romans. 
When she opposed their authority, the Romans had her publicly whipped and her daughters raped in front of her. Boudica responded by raising a giant rebel army of over 200,000 warriors. She waged a brutal revenge campaign against the Romans, defeating the Roman ninth Legion and plundering Rome’s three largest British cities. It took an entire three Roman legions to finally put a stop to her quest for vengeance. 

Sources; BBC, Tacitus, Annals of Rome 14.33, historic-uk.com, Dio, Live Science. 


NELLIE BLY In 1887 investigative journalist Nellie Bly was locked in an asylum for 10 days, after she courageously feigned insanity to expose the abusive treatment of patients at an infamous New York City mental institution. 
Bly’s documentation of the brutality and neglect that patients were subjected to shocked the American public. It led to a grand jury investigation and an extra 1 million dollars being allocated for the care of the mentally ill in New York. 
As well as her charitable journalism, in 1888 Bly gained infamy for her record-breaking trip around the world in just 72 days, traveling by ship and rail. 

Sources: Brain Pickings, Mental Floss, Nellie Bly Online, Britannica. 


EMMELINE PANKHURST  was a leading British women’s rights activist and suffragette, who was determined to win women the equal right to vote. 
Pankhurst founded the Women’s Social and Political Union in 1903 and, in 1910, she led a march of more than 300 women on parliament. 
She was arrested on numerous occasions and went on hunger strike while imprisoned. Two days after the outbreak of WWI, Pankhurst called for an immediate halt to militant activism, so that women could focus on patriotic activities instead. Following the impressive female contribution to the war effort, the Representation of the People Act was passed in 1918, offering the vote to British women over 30. 

Sources: BBC, Biography, History Learning Site, Spartacus Educational, The Week. 


ZINA PORTNOVA After witnessing a Nazi solider physically attack her grandmother, 15-year-old Zina Portnova decided to join the Belarusian resistance movement to fight the German occupation of the USSR. She learned to use weaponry and explosives, helping to destroy an enemy power plant, as well as a water station. Combined with her secret reports on German troop movements, it’s thought the teenager helped to kill over 100 Nazis. 
At one point, she used her position working in a kitchen to poison an entire German garrison. Sadly, Portnova was captured and executed aged just 17. 

Sources: Sakaida, H., Heroines of the Soviet Union 1941-45, prezi.com. 


AMELIA EARHART [Air-heart] In 1932 American aviator Amelia Earhart gained international fame after becoming the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean. 
The flight from America to North Ireland, which lasted almost 15 hours, was plagued by strong winds, icy conditions, and mechanical problems. 
Earhart was a prominent advocate of both feminism and the advancement of the aviation industry. 
She served as the first president of The Ninety-Nines, an organization of female pilots. 
During an attempt in 1937 to fly around the world, Earhart and her navigator Fred Noonan tragically disappeared while flying over the South Pacific Ocean. It is unknown what exactly went wrong and Earhart’s body was never found.

Sources: History, Americas Library, ameliaearhart.com, 


ANNIE SMITH PECK In an era before oxygen tanks, 19th century mountain climbing was incredibly dangerous. 
This didn’t put Annie Smith Peck off, though. Peck scaled all the major mountains of Europe and then became the first person to scale Peru’s highest peak, Mt. Huascarán. Peck was also a strong advocator of women’s rights, risking arrest for wearing trousers at a time when women were expected to wear long skirts. 
She even hung a ‘Votes for Women’ banner on the summit of several mountains she scaled. Peck continued to mountaineer late into her 80s and wrote four popular books on travel and exploration. 

Sources: Biography, Britannica, Rhode Island College. 


MALALA YOUSAFZAI [You-saff-ziy] Malala Yousafzai began campaigning for girls’ right to education when she was only 11-years-old. She grew up under oppressive Taliban occupation in Pakistan. 
She wrote articles and gave television interviews, using her public platform to speak out for equality. 
In October 2012, when Malala was just 15, a gunman boarded her schoolbus. Having asked for her by name, he shot her three times at close range. Miraculously, Malala survived. 
Her determination grew and today she continues on her mission to provide a voice for the 66 million girls who are deprived of education. Aged 17, Malala was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, making her the youngest ever Nobel laureate. 

Sources: Nobel Prize.org, BBC, Malala.org, Biography. 


MARIE CURIE Polish-born Marie Curie was a pioneering authority in the study of radioactivity, and a key figure in the discovery of polonium and radium. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize and also became the first person ever to win the award twice. 
During the First World War, Curie equipped ambulances with X-ray equipment and fearlessly drove them herself on the front line. 
In 1934 she died of leukemia, brought on by exposure to high-energy radiation during her research. Her selfless work was so dangerous that - even a century later - her notebooks are still too radioactive to handle. 

Sources: Mariecurie.org, BBC, Biography, Nobelprize.org, Famous Scientists. 


Hitler ideology of communism

9/15/2019 03:51:00 PM 0
Hitler ideology of communism
WRITTEN BY:  Rida Mohssine
LAST UPDATED:  See Historical figures

Since Germany's military had to be reduced, Hitler could no longer remain a soldier after the war, but he kept working for the army as an informant. 

Adolf Hitler saliendo de la sede del partido Nazi (Munich, 1931)

After the war, communists in Germany had attempted a revolution, and the government was worried about communism in general, so Hitler was tasked with infiltrating and reporting on any new political parties that could pose a communist threat. 

A new party called the German Workers' Party threw up a whole bunch of red flags, so Hitler went along to one of their meetings but found that they weren't communists at all - they were extreme right, and shared many of his extreme beliefs, so he left the army, and signed up to join the party. His fantastic speaking abilities impressed the party's leadership and supporters, and he very quickly rose to the top. 

He decided that the party needs a makeover, so he renamed it to the National Socialist German Workers' Party, or Nazi for short, and he gave it a new color scheme. 

The Nazis weren't very specific on policy, but Hitler made extravagant promises to return Germany to it's former glory, by undoing the Treaty of Versailles, and reuniting all ethic Germans into one nation. 

He also said that only pure Aryan people should be allowed to be citizens And that all Jews would lose their citizenship. These ideas were already common in extreme right politics, but what set the Nazis apart was Hitler himself, and they quickly became the leading party on the extreme right. Many of the political parties in Germany at the time had paramilitary wings, and the Nazis were no different. 

Hitler set up the very descriptive "Hall Protection Detachment," later changed to the very delightful "Gymnastic and Sports Division," and finally settling on the ominous "Storm Detachment", or SA for short. 

Their job was to defend Nazi party meetings and intimidate political opponents, and they were frequently engaged in battles with communists on the streets. Since the allies had demanded a reduction in Germany's military size, many trained soldiers were left unemployed. They liked the Nazi ideology, and it was only natural for them to join the SA, which grew larger and larger over time. 

The new democratic government that formed after World War I was pretty weak and ineffective. In order to pay reparations to the Allies, it started printing more money. 

The problem is that printing money doesn't actually give a country more money - it just makes money less valuable. So as the country printed more and more money, it became worth less and less and the currency crashed. In 1919, one U.S. dollar was worth about for German marks, but by December 1923, one U.S. dollar was equal to 4.2 trillion marks. The price of bread rose to 200 billion marks. 

Banknotes became worthless. Unsurprisingly, in such an economic crisis, Germany struggled to pay the allies. The French were pissed about this. So they occupied the Ruhr, an area full of factories, and took the economic output from the area as payment. 

They treated the German civilians badly and in total approximately a hundred and thirty Germans were killed during the occupation. Germans were furious and Hitler and the Nazis thought that now would be a great time to lead a revolution. In November 1923, inspired by something a certain bold Italian man did a year earlier, Hitler stormed a meeting at a beer hall, and called for an uprising against the government. 

With his supporters, he marched on the streets of Munich, hoping the police would join his side. They did not. *Gun Shots* Hitler was put on trial for treason. He could have been sentenced to life, but the right-wing judges thought he was a pretty cool guy. Hitler knew the judges and knew that they would be lenient. 

So he took the opportunity to make impassioned speeches during the trial and in the end he was sentenced to just five years in prison, of which he only served nine months, and when I said prison, it was more like a pleasant hotel stay where he had plenty of time to write a book. 

The whole affair was covered by the media nationwide, and it made Hitler famous. Hitler and his extreme message were now known throughout Germany. 

But the everyday German still didn't care much for him. In the 1928 election, the Nazis only one about 2% of the vote. Many were still intimidated by all the violence and the shouting and how un-politician-like he was, but a new economic crisis would change all of that. 

To help Germany pay its reparations, America agreed to give it loans. In October 1929, the Wall Street crash happened and America wanted its money back. 

The economic strain that stood on an already struggling Germany was severe. Unemployment skyrocketed. Poverty was widespread and Germans were sick of it. 
It was clear that the newly formed democracy wasn't working. 
In the face of crisis, Germans began moving to the political extremes. 
If you were German and want to change, your choices now were either the communists or the Nazis. Hitler claimed that he was the only one who could return Germany to its former glory. The Nazi party used propaganda to make Hitler seem like a great and powerful man and they gave the German people a scapegoat to blame for all their suffering. 

The promise of a single strong dictator was a breath of fresh air for Germans after years of failing democracy. Some bought into his extreme ideology. Some didn't agree with the racism, but were willing to vote for him anyway. 

Many didn't know much about politics at all, but just got caught up in the hype. Election after election, the Nazis became more and more popular until in 1932, they became the biggest party in the German parliament. 

Hitler came to truly believe that he was some sort of great destined savior of Germany. He turned megalomaniac. 

He decided to run for president and did surprisingly well, but still lost to the extremely popular World War I general, Paul von Hindenburg. Since he was now the leader of the biggest party, though, he demanded President Hindenburg make him chancellor. 

But Hindenburg was reluctant, seeing that Hitler was clearly such a big racist. Industry leaders urged Hindenburg to give Hitler the chancellorship, fearing the rising support for communism, and leader of the center party von Papen, who had been secretly negotiating with Hitler, said to Hindenburg, "How about we make Hitler chancellor on the condition that I get to be vice chancellor and most government jobs go to us, moderate conservatives. 

That way I'll get to keep my power, I mean, we'll get to keep our power and we'll control Hitler like he's our angry little puppet. What could possibly go wrong?" As it turned out, EVERYTHING. Hitler became chancellor of Germany in January 1933, but he was not yet a dictator. In February, the German Parliament building was set on fire. Historians still aren't sure who did it and many suspect the Nazis did it themselves, but Hitler blamed the communists, and he convinced president Hindenburg to sign an emergency decree allowing him to imprison all communists and other political opponents. 

Communists and others were sent off to the first concentration camp in Dachau. At this time, the elderly president Hindenburg passed away, giving Hitler the perfect opportunity. He introduced a law to parliament that would allow him to make all future laws and decisions entirely on his own. 

With his political opponents in prison and the SA intimidating others, Hitler's law passed. Just two months after becoming chancellor, Hitler was now a dictator. He still had one problem. The leader of the SA wanted the SA to take over the job of the regular German Army and the German Army didn't like that idea. 

Hitler needed to maintain the support of his professionally trained German army, more so than his rough and rowdy SA. 

So one night in June 1934, he had Rohm and many other of his own SA officers rounded up and murdered. 
While he was at it, he took the opportunity to brutally settle some personal scores as well. 
Politicians who had disagreed with him in the past, reporters who had printed negative articles about him, one guy who did absolutely nothing, but they thought he was someone else. 
In some cases, even their families were murdered. 
In total, up to 200 people were killed in what became known as the Night of the Long Knives. The army, now satisfied that they wouldn't be replaced, pledged total allegiance to their new fuhrer and Hitler's control was now absolute. 

Life in Germany changed violently. Freedom of the press, expression, and public assembly were suspended. Jews were initially branded and their businesses boycotted, and eventually, Hitler would go on to have six million Jewish men, women, and children killed in concentration camps. 

Hundreds of thousands of people were forced into sterilization for physical and mental imperfections. 
The Hitler Youth became a way to brainwash the young. Boys were trained to fight and returned home from camp violent. Girls were told their purpose was to have many pure Aryan children and they would sometimes return from camp pregnant. 

When their parents were understandably horrified, their children would threaten to turn them over to the Gestapo for standing in the way of Germany's greatness. 

The standard greeting changed and you could be sent to a concentration camp for not using it. This way, it seemed like everyone was a Nazi supporter. 
If you dare to pose Hitler or speak out against him in any way, you also would be sent to a concentration camp. German Nationalism captivated the young Adolf. 

Extreme ideology and anti-semitism vested in him as a young man living a hard life on the streets. Germany's defeat in the First World War filled him with hatred and a thirst for vengeance. A political movement that treated him like a god and hundreds of thousands looking up to him as their savior made him a megalomaniac, and soon, his aggressive foreign policies would drag the world into a second tragic global conflict, otherwise known as... World War 2
Adolphus Hitler was born in 1889 in a small town in Austria-Hungary.

A Biography of Adolf Hitler's life

9/15/2019 03:50:00 PM 0
A Biography of Adolf Hitler's life
WRITTEN BY:  Rida Mohssine
LAST UPDATED:  See Historical figures
Adolphus Hitler was born  in 1889 in a small town in Austria-Hungary. 

Hitler at school 1899

His father, Alois Schicklgruber, was born out of wedlock, but eventually changed his name to that of his stepfather, becoming Alois Hitler. 

Alois was a mid-level Austrian customs officer-- not really rolling in cash, but certainly rolling in women. He married a rich, older lady, but then immediately started having affairs, including one with a much younger house servant. 

A few years later, he left his sick wife to be with his mistress, but since the Catholic Church didn't allow divorce at the time, he couldn't marry her. 

So he waited for his old wife to die and had a child in the meantime. 

Then his wife died, so he married his mistress and had another child, but then his new wife got sick, so he employed his much, much younger cousin Clara to take care of her. Then when his new wife died, he immediately got Clara-- his cousin-- pregnant, and then married her... in that order. (You rockstar.) Clara and Alois had three children together who all tragically died while in infancy, so when the fourth child, Adolph, came along, Clara spoiled him rotten. 

The Hitler's had two more kids and the family moved around a few times, meaning Adolph had to attend five different elementary schools. Adolph's father was strict, quick to anger, and took most of it out on the eldest son until he had enough and ran away at the age of fourteen, leaving seven year old Adolph to do most of the chores and get berated by his father. 

The result was a difficult relationship with his dad while he was super attached to his mother who worried over him and his health excessively Hitler did well in school. At first, his grades were good and his teachers praised him. 

He was popular with the other kids and enjoyed gathering them together to play war games. He also loved reading and particularly liked stories about Cowboys and Indians. 

As he grew older, though, he started to get into trouble. He was caught smoking once, organised a raid on a local orchard, tormented his pro-Austria religion teacher with symbolic gestures displaying his allegiance the idea of united germanic people under a greater german state and defines of Habsburg Austria, you know, the usual. 

All of this enraged Adolph's father, who punished him severely. The area of Austria-Hungary that Hitler lived in was once part of the German Confederation, and many of the people who lived there considered themselves to be German. 

Adolph tended to just go against whatever his father said and since his father was an Austrian Public Official, Hitler got big into German nationalism. This enraged Adolph's father, who punished him severely. Around this time a family tragedy struck. His six-year-old brother, whom he loved a lot, died of measles when Adolph was 10 and was buried in the cemetery just across from their home. 

Around this time neighbors reported a change in the young boy. Strange behaviors such as talking to trees and staying up late staring at the stars from the cemetery walls. He lost interest in religion and his school grades started to decline which enraged his father, who punished him severely. 

It also didn't help that he had just entered high school and the cool city boys treated him like a rural peasant he had to Repeat a grade and had little interest in most school subjects instead spending his time reading and drawing which he was quite good at One day his father said son someday, you'll be a big balls public official like me and Adolf replied, no father I'm going to become an artist and soar high above the clouds with the eagles this enraged his father But by this time he was an old-ass man so he just sort of let it go and then died of a lung hemorrhage hitler just about passed his final semester and Celebrated in the typical way by getting blackout drunk and wiping his ass with the certificate However, he didn't take the overall final school exam instead Just dropping out. 

The now 16 year old boy was unemployed without much purpose in life and for the next three years He stayed that way he spent most of his time at the opera with his only friend August Kubizek August Kubizek later wrote his memories of the Young Hitler and said he was passionately interested in many things, felt he was in many ways better than others his age, was quick to anger just like his father, and an Incredible speaker once he was ranting. 

when he was 18 He said a very sad goodbye to his mother and went to Vienna to take the entrance exam for art school he failed Soon after he had to return home his mother was sick and her health was rapidly deteriorating Hitler stayed by her side And when she eventually died the family doctor said he had never seen someone so overwhelmed with Grief as Hitler was Then Hitler returned to Vienna still hoping to find a career in the arts But he never did instead without parental support hitler ended up on the streets now in his early 20s He spent a few rough years living in and out of homeless shelters, making What little he could from selling postcards He painted it's hard to pinpoint exactly when and how Hitler's extreme Ideological beliefs formed, but his time in Vienna would have certainly played a role Anti-semitism was widespread in the city the mayor whom hitler supported with an outspoken anti-semite There were many right-wing anti-semitic newsletters Which hitler took a keen interest in he bought into the conspiracy theories and became a firm believer in the idea that there are many Races and constant struggle with one another the purest of which were the German aryan people and the worst of which he believed were jews Since Austria-Hungary was a multi-ethnic Empire full of lesser races hitler wasn't a fan. So when he was 24 He moved to Munich in Germany to avoid doing military service and for one more year He was a drifter on the streets until something huge happened. 

In 1914 long-standing tensions in Europe erupted into the first world war. crowds across Europe celebrated the news. 

Within days Hitler volunteered for the German Army the war gave him a purpose in life his fellow Soldiers gave him friendship and Brotherhood Despite the horrors of War Hitler considered it to be the best time of his life. He was reportedly a brave soldier and was awarded the iron cross first class He was also very lucky and had many close encounters with death. 

His luck ran out in 1916 however when an artillery shell injured his leg he went back to germany to recover and was outraged to find a general Apathetic anti-war attitude among the exhausted and hungry German populace with the war turning against Germany he returns to the [frontlines] But was temporarily blinded by a british gas attack in 1918 a month later still recovering in hospital Hitler Learned of Germany's defeat and Surrender The terms of the peace treaty were tough on Germany it had to pay a lot of money and lose a lot of soldiers these Conditions weakened Germany and humiliated the German people. Europe's borders changed after the war too. 

New countries were formed out of Russia's lost territory Austria-Hungary was dissolved and there was one big new country splitting Germany into two. Hitler, seeing the country He loved humiliated like this said that hatred grew in him for those Responsible by which he meant communists and jews who he believed had stabbed Germany in the back by spreading dissent and Anti War Propaganda back home. 

Since Germany's military had to be reduced, Hitler could no longer remain a soldier after the war, but he kept working for the army as an informant.