DID YOU KNOW? : General topics
Showing posts with label General topics. Show all posts
Showing posts with label General topics. Show all posts


What would happen if China decided to invade America?

7/31/2019 01:31:00 PM 0
What would happen if China decided to invade America?

What would happen if China decided to invade America?


Americans would piss their pants from laughter.
Invading America is legitimately impossible. You know the saying “Never invade Russia in the winter”? Well this is Russia, but on steroids and the steroids are on steroids. China will be facing 4 MAJOR problems and if they over come them, then they MIGHT have a chance of successfully invading America. We will go through each of them in depth.
  • The US Navy
  • The US Military
  • The 7,000 mile journey from China to mainland USA then the 3,000 mile march from the west coast to the east coast through every climate and geographical area known to man
  • The US civilian population
First problem: The US Navy
The first problem China will have to face is the largest (in terms of tonnage) navy in the world. The US navy surpasses any navy in terms of tonnage by nearly 3 million tons. This is mainly in part due to have 11 of the largest naval vessels around known as aircraft carriers or more specifically the Nimitz Class Carriers and 1 Ford Class Carrier. These behemoths carry 90 aircraft of which 44 are fighter aircraft such as the F-18 Super Hornet and the F-35 Lightning II or the first operational carrier borne 5th generation stealth fighter.

China will also have to deal with 68 of the worlds most advanced destroyers known as the Arleigh Burke class destroyer. 
These destroyers are loaded to the teeth with tomahawk cruise missiles that could effectively wipe out a small army with 5 of them and each destroyer carries around 56 of the missiles. 
Then we can’t forget the infamous US submarines. The 64 we have at sea comprises of the Los Angeles class, Virginia class, and the infamous Seawolf class submarines. 
We also have 18 Ohio class submarines, and these are ballistic missile submarines which can launch nuclear tipped missiles (NOTE: 4 of the 18 have been changed to carry tomahawk cruise missiles and not nuclear weapons). The biggest issue for China with the US navy which is on par with fire power, is distance. Most of China’s naval assets are diesel powered, which as we all know need to be refueled. Without any refueling ports, anything that runs off of oil will need to stay back at home. You might say, well why don’t they make oil tankers and the subs or the boats can surface and they can refuel. 

Well to that I say read up on Type XIV submarine the Germans tried to make submarines that carried fuel to refuel the U-boats to extend the range. Problem is that when submarines are surfaced and are idling, they stick out like a hungry baby at 3AM, also any surface vessel from China would instantly pop up on radar and a massive strike fighter squadron would intercept along with missile attacks. Also, it should be noted that the US navy has the SECOND largest Air Force in the world. That’s right a single branch has more planes than any other country by nearly 200 planes.
Now let’s say China does get through the entire US navy, which is an impossible feat on its own. But for answers sake let’s say they do.
Second problem: The US Military
We can’t forget the 4 other branches! If some how the Chinese got through the US Navy, now they have to deal with the landing phases. We can effectively count out any aerial invasion as the US Air Force would intercept hundreds of miles out at sea, also the longest transport plane range for China is the Shaanxi Y-9 whichwhich is 3,500 miles or about 2,000 miles short of the shortest distance between the USA and China. 
And aerial refueling is a no go either because the farthest range for a tanker is 3,700 miles and the tankers have no place to land because the nearest island to the USA is Hawaii and that’s 6,500 miles from China so the planes still can’t make it to the Island.
 And remember all the planes need to get back to China. So which cuts the tankers distance in half to 1,850 miles. So the tankers could give the transports another 1,850 miles which is STILL 1,650 miles short of America. China could theoretically do it if they are willing to loose their entire tanker and transport fleet. And then we can take out all fighters and bombers because all the fighters and bombers max combat range is 1,000 miles and below. So China effectively has no air support. 
And to make it worse, all the transport ships China has, don’t have enough range to get to the USA and back! But let’s take range of the transport ships out of the equation and they have unlimited range.
They would be effectively taken out miles away from mainland USA from either the US Air Force or the M270 MLRS. But let’s say they get though and they begin to land in California. 
They now have to fight 200,000 US military personnel that are fighting on their home soil for their home along with hundreds of planes and helicopters for support. And the Chinese are fighting on an unknown terrain, 7,000 miles away from home with no air support or supplies.
Third problem: The Journey
As stated above. China and the US are far apart for a lack of better words. 
Moving the amount of troops and supplies needed to invade the USA is impossible and it would be a logistical nightmare for any military. 
The amount of troops, bullets, food, water, living supplies and everything in between would be absolutely astronomical. And then if some how some way they overcome the impossible. 
They have American geography to deal with. It would be Urban Warfare, Arctic Warfare, Mountain Warfare, Open Warfare, and Jungle/swamp Warfare. Urban warfare with all the HUGE American cities like Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York. Arctic Warfare in the northern states and the mountains. Mountain warfare in the Rockies, the Sierra Nevada, and the Appalachian mountains. Open Warfare in the entire MidWest as it’s insanely flat and no cover, then you have jungle/swamp warfare in the southern states, mainly in Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, and Florida. 
All of these warfares would be fought simultaneously such as urban, mountainous, and arctic warfare in Denver. Or Arctic and Mountain in the Rockies. Moving tanks, troops, and supplies through mountains is an impossible feat. Then moving the same stuff through the plains and the jungle is impossible again due to being susceptible to attack’s and they have no where to hide. Also, in urban warfare, every single floor would need to be cleared, and that’s a major challenge in of its self.

*all photos from America*
By now the armies have to be exhausted. But America is just getting started.
Fourth problem: Civilian population
Americans are deeply patriotic, we might just be the most patriotic country in the world. Tying into the 3rd problem, we have the American People. When the troops and supplies are moving through all the different areas, they will have to face off against the United States People. 
We have 103 guns PER 100 people or about enough guns for every American and giving a second gun to all the veterans. Then, we have nearly 2 TRILLION bullets. 
America would form militias and harass and destroy any invading force. They would be fighting around 120+ million pissed off Americans fighting for their home soil. All together they would be facing nearly 300 million Americans who would band together to help each other while nearly 100 million would fight.
We already have dozens of organized militias filled with armed Americans both civilians and ex-military. Such as the 3 percenters, Arizona Border Recon, and the Texas Lightfoot Militia. All these plus millions more would band together to fight for their home and for their loved ones against any invader.

Looks like a real military squad doesn’t it?
Overall, if China decided to invade America, it would be suicide and just flat out stupid. No country on earth could or would invade the USA because it would cost millions of lives and trillions of dollars to invade a place that would probably not stay under your control for long due to the uprising of Americans.


Conan Doyle's Adventures of Gerard

7/28/2019 03:51:00 PM 0
Conan Doyle's Adventures of Gerard

Conan Doyle's Adventures of Gerard

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was during his own lifetime as celebrated for his historical fiction as for his detective stories. Among his most popular works in this genre are the two volumes of short stories concerning the life and the adventures of Etienne Gerard. The Exploits of Brigadier Gerard was published in 1896 while Adventures of Gerardfollowed in 1903 (these tales had started appearing in the Strand magazine in 1894 and the final Gerard story dates from 1911).

Etienne Gerard is a hussar officer in Napoleon’s army who has been described by no less a judge than the Emperor himself as having both the stoutest heart and the thickest head in La Grande Armée.

Conan Doyle took his historical fiction seriously. He considered his works in this genre to be his greatest achievements. On the other hand he was 

always a commercial writer and entertainment was the first priority. The best of his historical novels, the two Brigadier Gerard collections and the two novels about Sir Nigel Loring, The White Company and Sir Nigel, manage to be both serious historical fiction and amusing and outrageous yarns.

This ability to be amusing while taking his subject matter seriously is a rare accomplishment and one is tempted to make comparisons to George MacDonald Fraser’s Flashman novels (such as Flashman and the Mountain of Light). There are differences of course. Gerard is genuinely brave, even if he is at times a fool. Flashman is a coward. But there are definite affinities. Conan Doyle adopts a mock-heroic style, with Gerard (who narrates the tales) treating his own idiocies as acts of extraordinary martial skill and glory. They are both men whose fame as soldiers is not entirely deserved. Gerard is a brave and well-meaning but not very intelligent bungler who has occasionally managed to do heroic things mostly by luck, although he considers himself to be a brilliant officer. Flashman is a coward and a scoundrel who has occasionally managed to appear to have done heroic things mostly by luck. So in both cases the author is taking a rather sceptical view of military glory.

The Crime of Brigadier Gerard presents Colonel Gerard with a fine opportunity to win honour. His mission is to singlehandedly scout out the Lines of Torres Vedras, the formidable line of fortifications that Viscount Wellington had constructed to defend Lisbon. Marshal Masséna has personally selected Gerard for the mission. It does not work out quite as planned. Gerard finds himself in the midst of something far more important than mere military manoeuvres - he blunders into a fox hunt. The English of course cannot possibly do without their fox hunting even in Portugal so they have imported both foxes and hounds. 

Gerard however does not quite appreciate just what a solemn occasion this is.

It’s a typical Gerard story, with Gerard doing his best to be heroic whilst being blissfully (and amusingly) unaware of what is actually happening.

How Brigadier Gerard Lost His Ear takes place in Venice, which Napoleon’s army is energetically and efficiently looting. 

The Venetians are outraged and some are exacting private vengeance on the French invaders. Gerard almost finds himself a victim of such private vengeance, although in his case there is more involved. There is a lady involved. Gerard of course will do anything for a lady. In this instance what he has to do is rather surprising. Another fine story.

In How the Brigadier Saved the Army Gerard is given a very important mission. The French are on the retreat but are being harried by Spanish guerillas.

 A large detachment of French troops will be left behind, and will be doomed, unless Gerard can light a beacon fire to tell them to fall back on the main army. To light the beacon Gerard will have to travel miles through guerilla-infested countryside. In this story Gerard demonstrates the extraordinary and very genuine courage of which he is capable, and it demonstrate his unbelievable capacity for making a thorough mess of things but somehow muddling his way through. A very enjoyable tale.

Gerard is often heroic and often absurd and in Brigadier Gerard at Waterloo he manages to be both at the same time. It’s also a story in which Gerard’s delusions about his own importance reach ridiculous but rather touching extremes. He is entrusted by the Emperor with a vital mission which cold determine the outcome of the battle. Of course it doesn’t but it does give Gerard the opportunity to save the Emperor. 

The fact that this ends up being a futile lost cause adds a further touch of melancholy amusement (and if you think melancholy amusement isn’t possible you need to read this story).

The Brigadier in England covers the period Gerard spent in England after being captured. Much of this time was spent in congenial surroundings at the home of Lord Rufton. Gerard spends his time leaning to play cricket (a most bloodthirsty game, or at least it is the way Gerard plays it) and getting mixed up in a complicated romantic intrigue in which Gerard as always doesn’t quite understand what is going on although he thinks he does. An amusing little story.

How the Brigadier Joined the Hussars of Conflans tells us of Gerard’s first day with the regiment that was to be so important to him. Gerard immediately makes himself ridiculous with his outrageous boasting, and then proceeds to demonstrate that he really is as brave as he says he is, almost singlehandedly capturing the city of Saragossa. Some fine swashbuckling here.

How Etienne Gerard Said Good-Bye to his Master is a poignant and quixotic tale of an attempt to rescue Napoleon from St Helena. You have to admire Gerard for refusing to abandon his allegiance to the Emperor. All the Gerard stories are recounted by the elderly Gerard some time in the 1850s or thereabouts and he never wavers from his loyalty. 

How Etienne Gerard Said Good-Bye to his Master is a poignant and quixotic tale of an attempt to rescue Napoleon from St Helena. You have to admire Gerard for refusing to abandon his allegiance to the Emperor.

 All the Gerard stories are recounted by the elderly Gerard some time in the 1850s or thereabouts and he never wavers from his loyalty.

The Marriage of the Brigadier was the last of the Gerard tales to be written (in 1910, several years after the publication of The Adventures of Gerard) but chronologically it’s the first of the stories, taking place in 1802. In peacetime Gerard finds time for love, and he discovers true fear. He fears no man, but an enraged bull is another matter. And the bull acts as an unexpected match-maker. A slight but amusing story.

The Gerard stories are an absolute delight. Gerard is a buffoon but he is a brave buffoon. His belief in his heroic stature never wavers and is sublimely unaffected by reality. The Adventures of Gerard is highly recommended.

About the Murder of a Startled Lady

7/28/2019 03:34:00 PM 0
About the Murder of a Startled Lady

About the Murder of a Startled Lady

Between 1930 and 1932 Anthony Abbot wrote four detective novels, very much in the Van Dine mould, featuring New York Police Commissioner Thatcher Colt. He then took a break for a few years before writing four more Thatcher Colt novels heavily influenced by his growing interest in psychic phenomena. The first of these new-look Thatcher Colt mysteries was About the Murder of a Startled Lady, published in 1935.

Abbot’s new interests are immediately apparent in this novel. It begins with a young woman reporting her own murder six months earlier. She makes the report through a medium at a séance, and she also reports that her dismembered body was dumped in the sea at a certain place. Thatcher Colt doesn’t believe in any of this spiritualist nonsense. On the other hand a murder has been reported 

and Colt decides it would be just as well to send a diver down to have a look and sure enough the body of young woman is found right where the dead girl said it was.

It’s not so much a body as a collection of human bones. Of course there’s no hope of identifying the remains now, except that there’s a man whose services Colt has used in the past, a man who is referred to as a crime sculptor who has the uncanny ability to reconstruct facial features from nothing but a skill. So the dead girl can be identified after all.

Once she’s been identified the story doesn’t become any less odd. The girl and everyone connected with her seem to have been decidedly strange and not entirely what you would call normal. And there’s reason to suspect the girl herself may have been a bit on the strange side.

The psychic elements are just one of the odd features of this tale. Anthony Abbot was always fascinated by the use of science in criminal investigation (there’s some wonderfully esoteric forensic science stuff in About the Murder of the Clergyman’s Mistress.

In About the Murder of a Startled Lady some of the scientific methods used verge on the science fictional. The facial reconstruction also stretches credibility a bit, given the technology of the time. In fact the crime sculptor seems to rely a bit too much on inspiration rather than technique.

Despite the supernatural trappings this is essentially a traditional puzzle-plot mystery with some police procedural overtones. I’m not sure it’s entirely fair play - there is one important clue which in my opinion remains unexplained and the essence of the puzzle-plot mystery is that the solution should not leave any loose ends. Apart from that one false step it’s a decent enough plot.

And Abbot comes up with a very neat and very clever variation on the traditional ending in which the detective gathers together all the suspects to reveal the solution. The solution itself is reasonably satisfactory.

The psychic elements are interesting for several reasons. We never really believe there’s going to be a supernatural solution and Thatcher Colt clearly doesn’t believe so either, but at the same time Colt has to admit that the apparent revelation by the dead girl is difficult to explain. The tricks used by phoney spiritualists were well-known and he expects the trickery to be easily explained but it isn’t. And they’re not just supernatural trappings to add a bit of atmosphere - they are in fact vital plot elements.

Anthony Abbot himself is a character in the Thatcher Colt mysteries. He’s Colt’s secretary and confidant and he’s the narrator of the stories. In other words he’s Colt’s Dr Watson. This fictional version of Anthony Abbot contributes a short foreword in which he makes some rather disparaging remarks about genius amateur detectives with an inexhaustible store of arcane knowledge. It almost sounds like a disavowal of the Van Dine school. This book is somewhat less Van Dine-like than Abbot’s earlier books. At the same time Thatcher Colt is clearly an educated and cultivated man, able to recognise instantly quotations from Dante.

I suspect that fans of puzzle-plot mysteries might find the first batch of four Thatcher Colt mysteries, such as the excellent About the Murder of the Circus Queen, to be more satisfactory than the second batch. It’s worth noting however that About the Murder of the Circus Queen also has a few occultist touches.

About the Murder of a Startled Lady is an intriguing variation on the impossible crime sub-genre. There’s nothing remotely impossible about the murder itself. It’s the process by which the murder is revealed that seems impossible.

This book might not be a masterpiece but it’s worth a look and Abbot is definitely an unfairly neglected mystery writer. Recommended.


College Student Finds a 65-Million-Year-Old Triceratops Skull During Paleontology Dig in North Dakota

7/26/2019 07:13:00 PM 0
College Student Finds a 65-Million-Year-Old Triceratops Skull During Paleontology Dig in North Dakota

College Student Finds a 65-Million-Year-Old Triceratops Skull During Paleontology Dig in North Dakota

Paleontology is often a game of luck, and an undergraduate student at the University of California, Merced recently hit the jackpot. 

As CBS News reports, Harrison Duran, a fifth-year biology student with an emphasis in ecology and evolutionary biology, was on a dig in the Badlands of North Dakota when he struck upon the partial skull of a 65-million-year-old Triceratops fossil.

Duran trekked out to the Badlands with "bone digger" and Mayville State University biology professor Michael Kjelland expecting to find plant fossils on their two-week dig. Among the fossilized wood and leaves, they discovered something else: the remains of a Triceratops, one of the most iconic dinosaurs of all time.

Duran, whose passion for dinosaurs predates his academic career, was ecstatic. “I can’t quite express my excitement in that moment when we uncovered the skull,” he told UC Merced. “I’ve been obsessed with dinosaurs since I was a kid, so it was a pretty big deal.”

The specimen was named Alice in honor of the owner of the land where it was found. After a week-long excavation, the partial skull was covered in foil and plaster and transported by truck to Kjelland's lab.

 Kjelland noted that such fossils are susceptible to theft (Triceratops skulls can be worth a quarter-million dollars), but he hopes to eventually make Alice viewable to the public. His ideal scenario would be touring the skull around various locations, but the fossil must be further analyzed and prepared for display before that can happen.

The Dakotas are famous for their dinosaur fossils. Triceratops are especially prevalent there—in South Dakota, the species is the official state fossil.


What Is Sarafina ?

7/24/2019 07:40:00 PM 0
What Is  Sarafina ?

What Is  Sarafina ? 

Sarafina is a minor character in the film, making few appearances and having only one spoken line.

Little of her past is known, though she mated with an unnamed lion with whom she had a daughter named Nala. However, as Nala is stated to be betrothed to Simba as part of a long-standing tradition, she would have presumably agreed to the betrothal at some point.


The Lion King

Sarafina is first seen sleeping with the other lionesses inside Pride Rock with Nala in her paws as Simba arrives to wake up Mufasa.

She is then seen later that day bathing Nala while visiting Sarabi. When Nala asks for permission to accompany Simba to the watering hole, she asks Sarabi for her opinion. When Sarabi gives her permission, Sarafina agrees and allows the two cubs to go.

She later appears along with Sarabi, Nala, Zazu and the rest of the pride mourning as Scar tells them that both Mufasa and Simba had perished in a stampede. Sarafina and the pride watch in horror as Scar allows hyenas into the Pride Lands after becoming King.

 After that, she hasn't made an appearance, through it is presumed that she took place during the Battle of Pride Rock and later was present during the presentation of her newborn granddaughter.

The Lion King (2019)

In this live action/CGI remake of the film, this character is called Serafina.

Printed media

The Lion King: Six New Adventures

Sarafina makes an appearance in the book Nala's Dare, which is part of The Lion King: Six New Adventures series. In the book, she along with a young rogue lion named Ni, rescue Nala and her friends Kula and Chumvi from hyenas. She later introduces Ni, who had been driven from his pride to the rest of the Pride Land lions.

Simba's Big Secret

After Nala goes missing, a worried Sarafina asks Simba if he has seen her. Not wanting to give away Nala's secret, Simba replies that he hasn't seen her.

However, after some coaxing from Sarabi, Simba tells Sarafina that Nala went to a secret cave near the red cliffs. Sarafina, Simba, Sarabi and the rest of the pride goes to search for Nala and discover her trapped inside the cave. After being rescued, Nala goes to Sarafina and promises not to go anywhere without telling someone again.


Women In History Jeannette Rankin

7/22/2019 04:12:00 PM 0
Women In History Jeannette Rankin

Jeannette Rankin

Jeannette Rankin was a Montana politician who made history in 1916 as the first woman ever elected to the United States Congress. She was also the only member of Congress to cast a vote against participation in both world wars. Unafraid to take controversial positions on several inflammatory issues, Rankin was a leader in the women’s suffrage movement and a lifelong pacifist.

Jeannette Rankin’s Early Years

Jeannette Rankin, born on June 11, 1880, grew up on her family’s ranch near Missoula in the Montana Territory. The eldest of seven children, Rankin helped care for her younger siblings, perform farm chores and maintain farm equipment. Her early life experiences working side-by-side with men on the western frontier would shape her political views on women’s right to vote.

After graduating from Montana State University (now the University of Montana) in 1902, Rankin spent brief stints as a social worker in San Francisco and New York. She then moved to Washington State, where she joined the women’s suffrage movement, a fight that culminated in 1910 when Washington became the fifth state in the Union to grant women the right to vote.

Rankin went on to work as a professional lobbyist for the National American Woman Suffrage Association, traveling back and forth across the country to speak and lobby for women’s right to vote. Her grassroots organizing efforts in her home state helped win the women of Montana voting rights in 1914.

Congressional Election of 1916

Two years later, Rankin campaigned for one of Montana’s two open U.S. House of Representatives seats. She ran as a progressive Republican with financial backing from her politically influential brother Wellington.

Rankin wasn’t the first woman to run for federal office. In 1866, suffragist Elizabeth Cady Stanton launched a symbolic bid for a Congressional seat in New York, while Ohio native Victoria Woodhull ran for President in 1872.

Jeannette Rankin campaigned on social welfare issues, U.S. neutrality in World War I and the right to vote for women in every state. She made history on November 7, 1916, when she won her election by a margin of 7,500 votes to become the first female member of Congress.

Shortly after her term began in April 1917, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson asked Congress to “make the world safe for democracy” by declaring war on Germany. Rankin, who held strong pacifist views, voted against the American declaration of war. On April 6, 1917, the resolution passed the House of Representatives by a vote of 373-50.

Women’s Suffrage

For the remainder of her two-year term in office, Jeannette Rankin supported measures to protect women workers, mothers and children.

She was one of the founding members of the Committee on Woman Suffrage, which led the fight in the House of Representatives for a constitutional amendment that would grant women nationwide the right to vote.

Rankin opened the 1918 congressional debate on a constitutional women’s suffrage amendment by recalling President Wilson’s speech to garner support for U.S. entry into World War I.

“How shall we explain to them the meaning of democracy if the same Congress that voted to make the world safe for democracy refuses to give this small measure of democracy to the women of our country?” she challenged.

The 1918 amendment passed the House but died in the Senate. A similar resolution, which would become the 19th Amendment prohibiting states and the federal government from denying women the right to vote, passed both chambers in 1919, after Rankin left office.

Second Congressional Term

After running unsuccessfully in 1918 for a U.S. Senate seat as an independent, Jeannette Rankin left office, dividing her time over the next two decades between pacifist and social welfare causes.

She became a lobbyist and speaker for the National Council for the Prevention of War from 1929 to 1939.

As U.S. involvement in another world war loomed, Rankin once again ran and was elected as a Representative from Montana in 1940. During her second Congressional term, she was one of seven women serving in the House.

After the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, Jeannette Rankin cast the sole vote against World War II, making her the only Congress person to vote against U.S. involvement in both World Wars.

“As a woman I can’t go to war, and I refuse to send anyone else,” she said.

The immediate backlash against Rankin’s anti-war vote was intense. When angry bystanders threatened to do her harm, Rankin locked herself briefly in a phone booth inside the House Republican Cloakroom while waiting for a police escort back to her office.

Rankin’s actions were widely ridiculed in the pro-war press. Given her unpopularity, she opted not to seek reelection in 1942.

Pacifist Views

Later in life, Rankin spent much of her time traveling the world. She was particularly drawn to India, where she immersed herself in the nonviolent resistance teachings of Mahatma Gandhi.

During the 1960s, Jeannette Rankin became known to a new generation of Americans for her anti-war activism. In 1968, she led the Jeannette Rankin Peace Brigade, a protest march in Washington D.C. of some 5,000 feminists, pacifists, radicals and students to demonstrate against the Vietnam War.

Jeannette Rankin died in 1973 at the age of 92. At the time of her death, she was considering another run for a House seat in protest of the Vietnam War.


How Much Water Do You Really Need?

7/20/2019 08:27:00 PM 0
How Much Water Do You Really Need?

How Much Water Do You Really Need To Drink?

You are what you eat — but if you want to get literal about it, you are mostly what you drink. So, how much of that should be water?
About 60 percent of the average adult human body is made of water, according to a National Institutes of Health report. 

This includes most of your brain, heart, lungs, muscles and skin, and even about 30 percent of your bones. Besides being one of the main ingredients in the recipe for humankind, water helps us regulate our internal temperature, transports nutrients throughout our bodies, flushes waste, forms saliva, lubricates joints and even serves as a protective shock absorber for vital organs and growing fetuses.  [How Long Can A Person Survive Without Water?]

There's no dispute that water is crucial to a healthy life (or any life at all, for that matter). And yet, there's little scientific consensus about the exact amount of the stuff an individual should consume each day. So how much water do you actually need to drink to be healthy?

You may have heard that you should drink eight 8-ounce (237 milliliters) glasses of water a day (totaling 64 ounces, or about 1.9 liters). That's the wrong answer. Despite the pervasiveness of this easily remembered rule, there is no scientific evidence to back it up, according to a 2002 review of studies. In fact, numerous studies suggest that this is far more actual drinking water than is necessary for most healthy adults.

The problem with this rule, researchers say, is that drinking water by the glass is not the only way that humans hydrate. Yes, it's true that guzzling H2O is an inexpensive and calorie-free way to whet your whistle, but the "8 x 8" rule crucially overlooks two big sources of daily water consumption.

Food and drink
One such source is food. Everything you eat contains some water. Raw fruits and vegetables have a lot; fruits such as watermelons and strawberries, for example, are more than 90 percent water by weight, according to the U.S. 
Department of Agriculture. Different diets naturally contain different amounts of water, but it adds up. According to a 2004 report by the National Academies of Sciences, the average North American gets about 20 percent of his or her daily water intake through food, and that counts toward healthy hydration.

The other key water sources that the "8 x 8" rule overlooks are other beverages. Non-alcoholic drinks such as coffee, tea, milk, juice and soda contain mostly water, and all contribute to your hydration. Contrary to another popular myth, studies show that coffee does not dehydrate youand is a suitable form of H2O intake. (Just remember that there can be adverse side effects of drinking too much caffeine, including headaches and disrupted sleep.)

So, between all the food, water, and other fluids you consume in a day, how much water should you aim to imbibe? The National Academies of Sciences suggests that women consume a total of approximately 2.7 liters (91 ounces) of water from all beverages and foods each day and that men get approximately 3.7 liters (125 ounces) daily.

But these are just general guidelines and are not supported by firm scientific studies.

The truth is, there is no magic formula for hydration — everyone's needs vary depending on their age, weight, level of physical activity, general health and even the climate they live in. The more water you lose to sweating, the more water you'll need to replace with food and drink.

So, naturally, a person doing strenuous physical work in a hot, tropical climate would need to drink more water than a person of identical weight and height who spent the day sitting in an air-conditioned office.

If you are looking for concrete advice, though, the best place to look is within.

"The vast majority of healthy people adequately meet their daily hydration needs by letting thirst be their guide," according to the National Academies of Sciences.

Your body naturally feels thirsty when your hydration levels are dropping, and water is the best medicine. (On the other end of the digestive spectrum, your urine can also tell you whether you're getting enough to drink — dark yellow or orange urine usually indicates dehydration, while well-hydrated urine should look pale yellow or colorless.)

The bottom line: Drink up when you're thirsty, and drink more when you sweat more. Your body will take it from there.

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