INTHEPROF: Historical figures
Showing posts with label Historical figures. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Historical figures. Show all posts


Hitler ideology of communism

9/15/2019 03:51:00 PM 0
Hitler ideology of communism
WRITTEN BY:  Rida Mohssine
LAST UPDATED:  See Historical figures

Since Germany's military had to be reduced, Hitler could no longer remain a soldier after the war, but he kept working for the army as an informant. 

Adolf Hitler saliendo de la sede del partido Nazi (Munich, 1931)

After the war, communists in Germany had attempted a revolution, and the government was worried about communism in general, so Hitler was tasked with infiltrating and reporting on any new political parties that could pose a communist threat. 

A new party called the German Workers' Party threw up a whole bunch of red flags, so Hitler went along to one of their meetings but found that they weren't communists at all - they were extreme right, and shared many of his extreme beliefs, so he left the army, and signed up to join the party. His fantastic speaking abilities impressed the party's leadership and supporters, and he very quickly rose to the top. 

He decided that the party needs a makeover, so he renamed it to the National Socialist German Workers' Party, or Nazi for short, and he gave it a new color scheme. 

The Nazis weren't very specific on policy, but Hitler made extravagant promises to return Germany to it's former glory, by undoing the Treaty of Versailles, and reuniting all ethic Germans into one nation. 

He also said that only pure Aryan people should be allowed to be citizens And that all Jews would lose their citizenship. These ideas were already common in extreme right politics, but what set the Nazis apart was Hitler himself, and they quickly became the leading party on the extreme right. Many of the political parties in Germany at the time had paramilitary wings, and the Nazis were no different. 

Hitler set up the very descriptive "Hall Protection Detachment," later changed to the very delightful "Gymnastic and Sports Division," and finally settling on the ominous "Storm Detachment", or SA for short. 

Their job was to defend Nazi party meetings and intimidate political opponents, and they were frequently engaged in battles with communists on the streets. Since the allies had demanded a reduction in Germany's military size, many trained soldiers were left unemployed. They liked the Nazi ideology, and it was only natural for them to join the SA, which grew larger and larger over time. 

The new democratic government that formed after World War I was pretty weak and ineffective. In order to pay reparations to the Allies, it started printing more money. 

The problem is that printing money doesn't actually give a country more money - it just makes money less valuable. So as the country printed more and more money, it became worth less and less and the currency crashed. In 1919, one U.S. dollar was worth about for German marks, but by December 1923, one U.S. dollar was equal to 4.2 trillion marks. The price of bread rose to 200 billion marks. 

Banknotes became worthless. Unsurprisingly, in such an economic crisis, Germany struggled to pay the allies. The French were pissed about this. So they occupied the Ruhr, an area full of factories, and took the economic output from the area as payment. 

They treated the German civilians badly and in total approximately a hundred and thirty Germans were killed during the occupation. Germans were furious and Hitler and the Nazis thought that now would be a great time to lead a revolution. In November 1923, inspired by something a certain bold Italian man did a year earlier, Hitler stormed a meeting at a beer hall, and called for an uprising against the government. 

With his supporters, he marched on the streets of Munich, hoping the police would join his side. They did not. *Gun Shots* Hitler was put on trial for treason. He could have been sentenced to life, but the right-wing judges thought he was a pretty cool guy. Hitler knew the judges and knew that they would be lenient. 

So he took the opportunity to make impassioned speeches during the trial and in the end he was sentenced to just five years in prison, of which he only served nine months, and when I said prison, it was more like a pleasant hotel stay where he had plenty of time to write a book. 

The whole affair was covered by the media nationwide, and it made Hitler famous. Hitler and his extreme message were now known throughout Germany. 

But the everyday German still didn't care much for him. In the 1928 election, the Nazis only one about 2% of the vote. Many were still intimidated by all the violence and the shouting and how un-politician-like he was, but a new economic crisis would change all of that. 

To help Germany pay its reparations, America agreed to give it loans. In October 1929, the Wall Street crash happened and America wanted its money back. 

The economic strain that stood on an already struggling Germany was severe. Unemployment skyrocketed. Poverty was widespread and Germans were sick of it. 
It was clear that the newly formed democracy wasn't working. 
In the face of crisis, Germans began moving to the political extremes. 
If you were German and want to change, your choices now were either the communists or the Nazis. Hitler claimed that he was the only one who could return Germany to its former glory. The Nazi party used propaganda to make Hitler seem like a great and powerful man and they gave the German people a scapegoat to blame for all their suffering. 

The promise of a single strong dictator was a breath of fresh air for Germans after years of failing democracy. Some bought into his extreme ideology. Some didn't agree with the racism, but were willing to vote for him anyway. 

Many didn't know much about politics at all, but just got caught up in the hype. Election after election, the Nazis became more and more popular until in 1932, they became the biggest party in the German parliament. 

Hitler came to truly believe that he was some sort of great destined savior of Germany. He turned megalomaniac. 

He decided to run for president and did surprisingly well, but still lost to the extremely popular World War I general, Paul von Hindenburg. Since he was now the leader of the biggest party, though, he demanded President Hindenburg make him chancellor. 

But Hindenburg was reluctant, seeing that Hitler was clearly such a big racist. Industry leaders urged Hindenburg to give Hitler the chancellorship, fearing the rising support for communism, and leader of the center party von Papen, who had been secretly negotiating with Hitler, said to Hindenburg, "How about we make Hitler chancellor on the condition that I get to be vice chancellor and most government jobs go to us, moderate conservatives. 

That way I'll get to keep my power, I mean, we'll get to keep our power and we'll control Hitler like he's our angry little puppet. What could possibly go wrong?" As it turned out, EVERYTHING. Hitler became chancellor of Germany in January 1933, but he was not yet a dictator. In February, the German Parliament building was set on fire. Historians still aren't sure who did it and many suspect the Nazis did it themselves, but Hitler blamed the communists, and he convinced president Hindenburg to sign an emergency decree allowing him to imprison all communists and other political opponents. 

Communists and others were sent off to the first concentration camp in Dachau. At this time, the elderly president Hindenburg passed away, giving Hitler the perfect opportunity. He introduced a law to parliament that would allow him to make all future laws and decisions entirely on his own. 

With his political opponents in prison and the SA intimidating others, Hitler's law passed. Just two months after becoming chancellor, Hitler was now a dictator. He still had one problem. The leader of the SA wanted the SA to take over the job of the regular German Army and the German Army didn't like that idea. 

Hitler needed to maintain the support of his professionally trained German army, more so than his rough and rowdy SA. 

So one night in June 1934, he had Rohm and many other of his own SA officers rounded up and murdered. 
While he was at it, he took the opportunity to brutally settle some personal scores as well. 
Politicians who had disagreed with him in the past, reporters who had printed negative articles about him, one guy who did absolutely nothing, but they thought he was someone else. 
In some cases, even their families were murdered. 
In total, up to 200 people were killed in what became known as the Night of the Long Knives. The army, now satisfied that they wouldn't be replaced, pledged total allegiance to their new fuhrer and Hitler's control was now absolute. 

Life in Germany changed violently. Freedom of the press, expression, and public assembly were suspended. Jews were initially branded and their businesses boycotted, and eventually, Hitler would go on to have six million Jewish men, women, and children killed in concentration camps. 

Hundreds of thousands of people were forced into sterilization for physical and mental imperfections. 
The Hitler Youth became a way to brainwash the young. Boys were trained to fight and returned home from camp violent. Girls were told their purpose was to have many pure Aryan children and they would sometimes return from camp pregnant. 

When their parents were understandably horrified, their children would threaten to turn them over to the Gestapo for standing in the way of Germany's greatness. 

The standard greeting changed and you could be sent to a concentration camp for not using it. This way, it seemed like everyone was a Nazi supporter. 
If you dare to pose Hitler or speak out against him in any way, you also would be sent to a concentration camp. German Nationalism captivated the young Adolf. 

Extreme ideology and anti-semitism vested in him as a young man living a hard life on the streets. Germany's defeat in the First World War filled him with hatred and a thirst for vengeance. A political movement that treated him like a god and hundreds of thousands looking up to him as their savior made him a megalomaniac, and soon, his aggressive foreign policies would drag the world into a second tragic global conflict, otherwise known as... World War 2
Adolphus Hitler was born in 1889 in a small town in Austria-Hungary.

A Biography of Adolf Hitler's life

9/15/2019 03:50:00 PM 0
A Biography of Adolf Hitler's life
WRITTEN BY:  Rida Mohssine
LAST UPDATED:  See Historical figures
Adolphus Hitler was born  in 1889 in a small town in Austria-Hungary. 

Hitler at school 1899

His father, Alois Schicklgruber, was born out of wedlock, but eventually changed his name to that of his stepfather, becoming Alois Hitler. 

Alois was a mid-level Austrian customs officer-- not really rolling in cash, but certainly rolling in women. He married a rich, older lady, but then immediately started having affairs, including one with a much younger house servant. 

A few years later, he left his sick wife to be with his mistress, but since the Catholic Church didn't allow divorce at the time, he couldn't marry her. 

So he waited for his old wife to die and had a child in the meantime. 

Then his wife died, so he married his mistress and had another child, but then his new wife got sick, so he employed his much, much younger cousin Clara to take care of her. Then when his new wife died, he immediately got Clara-- his cousin-- pregnant, and then married her... in that order. (You rockstar.) Clara and Alois had three children together who all tragically died while in infancy, so when the fourth child, Adolph, came along, Clara spoiled him rotten. 

The Hitler's had two more kids and the family moved around a few times, meaning Adolph had to attend five different elementary schools. Adolph's father was strict, quick to anger, and took most of it out on the eldest son until he had enough and ran away at the age of fourteen, leaving seven year old Adolph to do most of the chores and get berated by his father. 

The result was a difficult relationship with his dad while he was super attached to his mother who worried over him and his health excessively Hitler did well in school. At first, his grades were good and his teachers praised him. 

He was popular with the other kids and enjoyed gathering them together to play war games. He also loved reading and particularly liked stories about Cowboys and Indians. 

As he grew older, though, he started to get into trouble. He was caught smoking once, organised a raid on a local orchard, tormented his pro-Austria religion teacher with symbolic gestures displaying his allegiance the idea of united germanic people under a greater german state and defines of Habsburg Austria, you know, the usual. 

All of this enraged Adolph's father, who punished him severely. The area of Austria-Hungary that Hitler lived in was once part of the German Confederation, and many of the people who lived there considered themselves to be German. 

Adolph tended to just go against whatever his father said and since his father was an Austrian Public Official, Hitler got big into German nationalism. This enraged Adolph's father, who punished him severely. Around this time a family tragedy struck. His six-year-old brother, whom he loved a lot, died of measles when Adolph was 10 and was buried in the cemetery just across from their home. 

Around this time neighbors reported a change in the young boy. Strange behaviors such as talking to trees and staying up late staring at the stars from the cemetery walls. He lost interest in religion and his school grades started to decline which enraged his father, who punished him severely. 

It also didn't help that he had just entered high school and the cool city boys treated him like a rural peasant he had to Repeat a grade and had little interest in most school subjects instead spending his time reading and drawing which he was quite good at One day his father said son someday, you'll be a big balls public official like me and Adolf replied, no father I'm going to become an artist and soar high above the clouds with the eagles this enraged his father But by this time he was an old-ass man so he just sort of let it go and then died of a lung hemorrhage hitler just about passed his final semester and Celebrated in the typical way by getting blackout drunk and wiping his ass with the certificate However, he didn't take the overall final school exam instead Just dropping out. 

The now 16 year old boy was unemployed without much purpose in life and for the next three years He stayed that way he spent most of his time at the opera with his only friend August Kubizek August Kubizek later wrote his memories of the Young Hitler and said he was passionately interested in many things, felt he was in many ways better than others his age, was quick to anger just like his father, and an Incredible speaker once he was ranting. 

when he was 18 He said a very sad goodbye to his mother and went to Vienna to take the entrance exam for art school he failed Soon after he had to return home his mother was sick and her health was rapidly deteriorating Hitler stayed by her side And when she eventually died the family doctor said he had never seen someone so overwhelmed with Grief as Hitler was Then Hitler returned to Vienna still hoping to find a career in the arts But he never did instead without parental support hitler ended up on the streets now in his early 20s He spent a few rough years living in and out of homeless shelters, making What little he could from selling postcards He painted it's hard to pinpoint exactly when and how Hitler's extreme Ideological beliefs formed, but his time in Vienna would have certainly played a role Anti-semitism was widespread in the city the mayor whom hitler supported with an outspoken anti-semite There were many right-wing anti-semitic newsletters Which hitler took a keen interest in he bought into the conspiracy theories and became a firm believer in the idea that there are many Races and constant struggle with one another the purest of which were the German aryan people and the worst of which he believed were jews Since Austria-Hungary was a multi-ethnic Empire full of lesser races hitler wasn't a fan. So when he was 24 He moved to Munich in Germany to avoid doing military service and for one more year He was a drifter on the streets until something huge happened. 

In 1914 long-standing tensions in Europe erupted into the first world war. crowds across Europe celebrated the news. 

Within days Hitler volunteered for the German Army the war gave him a purpose in life his fellow Soldiers gave him friendship and Brotherhood Despite the horrors of War Hitler considered it to be the best time of his life. He was reportedly a brave soldier and was awarded the iron cross first class He was also very lucky and had many close encounters with death. 

His luck ran out in 1916 however when an artillery shell injured his leg he went back to germany to recover and was outraged to find a general Apathetic anti-war attitude among the exhausted and hungry German populace with the war turning against Germany he returns to the [frontlines] But was temporarily blinded by a british gas attack in 1918 a month later still recovering in hospital Hitler Learned of Germany's defeat and Surrender The terms of the peace treaty were tough on Germany it had to pay a lot of money and lose a lot of soldiers these Conditions weakened Germany and humiliated the German people. Europe's borders changed after the war too. 

New countries were formed out of Russia's lost territory Austria-Hungary was dissolved and there was one big new country splitting Germany into two. Hitler, seeing the country He loved humiliated like this said that hatred grew in him for those Responsible by which he meant communists and jews who he believed had stabbed Germany in the back by spreading dissent and Anti War Propaganda back home. 

Since Germany's military had to be reduced, Hitler could no longer remain a soldier after the war, but he kept working for the army as an informant. 


antonio gramsci!!! have you ever heard thiis name before?

9/12/2019 10:35:00 PM 0
antonio gramsci!!! have you ever heard thiis name before?

WRITTEN BY:  Rida Mohssine

LAST UPDATED:  See Historical figures

Antonio Gramsci  , Italian political activists   and writer  who was influential in the development of Marxist  Cultural Theory

He  aimed  to develop Concepts that  would  enable the understanding and transformation of 20 Century political and economic structure and social and cultural relations. It is best known for his work on the idea of his hegemony.

Antonio Gramsci

 Gamsci   was born in sardinia  and was  educated in turin  when he joined  Italian Socialist Party, and worked as a journalist. 

in 1921  he was a Founder member of the Italian Communist Party  PCI and, after a visit to Moscow, was elected to the Italian parliament. 

He later became leader of the PCI and, in 1926 , was sentenced to 20 years imprisonment by mussolin's fascist government,   at his trial the official prosector demanded of the judge that we must stop this brain working for 20 years !  However,  during his imprisonment  Gramasci wrote  his most famous works , published as selections from Prison Notebooks 1971, which  combined studies of politics philosophy history literature and culture. He died shortly after being released from prison.
 Geometry is important to cultural studies because of his attempts to develop the connections between class relations,  culture and Power how to reducing issues of culture and meaning to ask superstructure determined by an economic Base. 

His Concept  of  hegemony aimed  at understanding  how  dominant classes good organized  their rule   though consent when their political and economic power was not in the interest of those they subordinated  however, this was not static situation within which the ideas of the powerful went unchallenged   gramsci  use the metaphor of a war of manoeuvre  to suggest that political struggles  we're continually being fought  into who variety of areas;political, economic, and cultural.
In turn this meant conceptualising the role of the intellectuals who were part of fighting these wars.  

Through his nation of the organic intellectual he argued that everyone who use ideas was an intellectual (it was not just a label for Small professional group ) and that this thinkers and their ideas were organically tied to particular class interests . 

It can be argues that it is Gramsci's ideas  that  form  the basis  of the nation of cultural politics ; due to the ways in which they were taken up and reworked by those working in the Birmingham center for contemporary cultural studies.


The Great Queen

6/30/2019 02:11:00 PM 0
The Great Queen

WRITTEN BY:  Rida Mohssine
LAST UPDATED:  See Historical figures

Queen Elizabeth the first (1558-1603), She is the first daughter of king Henry from his second wife Ann Boleyn. Elizabeth come to be the queen at the age of 25, she is the most well known queen in history , because she was intelectual , and fluent in 4 languages; 

Queen Elizabeth the first (1558-1603)

Greek,Latin,French,and Italian , She studied thepology. Elizabeth was like her mother and become a strong protestant.

When she come to power England had no army or police and a weak bureaucracy.

 When she died in 1603, She left England as one of the most powerful nations on earth.

In 1559 Elizabeth made Protestantism as the national religion by having parliament pass the act of supremacy: this law made the queen (or king) the supreme head of the church of England.

 There were rumors the Catholics were going to try to assassinate Elizabeth and that Mary, queen of Scots was involved. Parliament wanted her executed and Elizabeth had her head cut off in 1587.

King Philip of Spain wanted to help the catholics in England 
(this was a time of fighting between catholics and protestants) .

 Also, English and Spainish ships were coming into conflict on the ocean. By the mid 1580s it become clear that Spain and England would go to war with each other. In one of the most famous battles in English history, the English channel 1588.

In the same year Shekespear arrived in London. He wrote 20 plays which Elizabeth enjoyed very much. Many of this historical plays celebreted England's greatness.

This was a time of great economic grouth for England. This was also the beginning of the great age of exploration and descovery around the world.


Ernest Hemingway

6/22/2019 01:00:00 AM 0
Ernest Hemingway
WRITTEN BY:  Rida Mohssine
LAST UPDATED:  See Historical figures

Have you ever heard this  name befeor? or maybe you knew some  

few information about this persone?

Ernest Hemingway 

For more extra information about this amazing man follow us on this intresting article to descover more about, his life / his works /and his evolutanary style .....

Ernest Hemingway was born in the United State espacialy in (OAK PARK), on july 21/1899. Ernest comes from a very conservative familly , both his parents were well educated ,

a muscian mother and a physcian father , he was the first son for his parents , after years comes his little tow sisters and brother , Sunny , Ursella and Michelle .

At his early life , when he was at high school , he was working a journalist at the officall high school news paper , writting articls about sports.   

During World War 1, Hemingway moved from New York to Itally , to work with the itallian armey as an ambulance driver , for his hard work and good actions he received the itallian silver medall of bravery .

After that he decided to come back home and to mary Agnes Von Kurowsky , a nurse at the red cross , who meet her during his millitary services and fall in love with her, but after a long relotionship she left him and get married with another man.  But for Hemingway , 

this was just the biginning , because he invest in all his life exprience and start writting wonderfull novels and short stories , he write " A Farwell To Arms " after he breakup with Agnes Von , he wrote also a list of short stories and novells  such as : " the old man and the sea", " the sun also rise ", " in our time ", " on fishing" and " the underfeated ".......

Beside all this intrest Hemingway was also intrested on sports and journalist , he was working with a number of local news papers in The US ..... , this was just a small biginning for this incredibell man , who received the nobel prize of litterature , and become a turning point in novel writting style , " the ice berg theory" , in which he became a great influencer in 20th centeury novel . The arabic novel influenced also by Hemingway style .......

After his long journey , Ernest Hemingway endup his life in july 2nd ,1961 comitting sucide .