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Showing posts with label Real Story. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Real Story. Show all posts


What are some interesting facts about Nazi Germany?

8/05/2019 04:52:00 PM 0
What are some interesting facts about Nazi Germany?

What are some interesting facts about Nazi Germany?

Here’s something a cut more light-hearted.
How about the sheer amount of mockery, derogatory nicknames, barbed quips, and all other forms of insult thrown at each other by most of the ranking officials of the Third Reich?
A lot of the Reich’s leaders were people with very keen minds, and very few of them liked each other. This led to a whole heap of barbed quips and cleverly designed nicknames. And all too often, the German people joined in the tradition of finding as many hilariously insulting nicknames as possible.
Heinrich Himmler was often the butt of many a joke: the man was despised by his underlings, his superiors, and his colleagues. The diminutive of his name, ‘Heini’ was particularly popular, because it also indicated an idiot, a scatterbrain, or a scared child. Many a variation was built around that diminutive, most scathingly by Sepp Dietrich, who called his superior ‘Reichsheini’, ‘Reich’s Idiot’.
But in terms of insulting Himmler, Göring got the gold medal: once he quipped “Himmler has a brain, you know. It’s called Heydrich.”

Himmler walking alongside his brain.
Göring didn’t get away from it, either. Alongside numerous insults referring to his use of morphine or his obesity, the most pointed one he laid the ground for himself: he’d proclaim during a public speech in 1939 that you could call him Hermann Meyer if one Allied bomber managed to drop one bomb on German home soil.
No points for guessing what was the most common nickname for Göring at the end of the war.
Interestingly, Göring was surprisingly good-natured about that particular insult. He even got in on the joke himself once, when he was addressed by name when inspecting bomb damage. He turned, and said ‘You found the wrong person, I’m afraid. My name’s Meyer.”

Reichsmarschall Meyer posing for the cameras
But if there was one practically default butt for all jokes among the Hitler cabal, it was Goebbels. Especially after the depths of his sheer womanizing got out. Hitler scathingly nicknamed him Unterleibsminister(Minister of the Genitals), many in the Party began to call him ‘the fornicator of Babelsberg’, Babelsberg being essentially the German equivalent to Hollywood. The plethora of derogatory nicknames ascribed to him didn’t all have to do with his fornication, of course: ‘Mahatma Propagandhi’ and ‘the limping devil’ saw a lot of uses, and none other than Röhm coined ‘Wotan’s Mickey Mouse’.
Not even Hitler escaped the barbed tongues. ‘The Bohemian Corporal’ is notorious among the military circles, mocking both his failure to secure a promotion above corporal and his failed attempts at becoming an artist, first coined by Hindenburg. None other than his own valet came up with ‘carpet-chewer’ due to his habit to nonstop pace the carpets sleepless in times of crisis, Gröfaz, an abbreviation of the phrase ‘Greatest Military Genius of All Time’ coined by Keitel in 1940 to suck up to him, rapidly became a pointed insult favorite of the Wehrmacht in the second half of the war.
Göring mocked Morell as ‘Master of the Imperial Needle’, Bormann’s arrogance and intolerance of anything short of perfection got him ‘God Almighty from Obersalzberg’ by Berghof staff, and Heydrich himself was dubbed ‘the Goat’ because of his high-pitched laugh(whoever came up with that was a braver man than I).

Greatest Military Genius of All Time along with the God Almighty from Obersalzberg, walking. Joining them is von Ribbentrop, or as Göring dubbed him, ‘that dirty little champagne salesman’.
Not being particularly notable or part of the Hitler inner circle didn’t save you, either. Adolf Ziegler, Hitler’s favorite painter, got “Reich Pubic Hair Painter” for some reason I can’t possibly comprehend. Friedrich Paulus’ obsession with hygiene and hatred of dirt earned him a sarcastic ‘Our most elegant gentleman’ from his more grizzled compatriots. Julius Streicher got called ‘Frankenführer’. Benno von Arent, stage uniform designer, got ‘Tinsmith of the Third Reich’ from Speer because of his ostentatious uniforms.
Engelbert Dolfuss, being short, Austrian, and ambitious, got the moniker ‘Millimetternich’. Hermann Fegelein was called ‘Flegelein’, a wordplay on the word ‘flegel’ meaning ‘lout, boor’. Wilhelm Keitel got from his fellow officers ‘lakeitel’, another wordplay using the word ‘lakai’, meaning ‘lackey’. Georg Stumme, due to his rounded body and overexcited behavior, got called ‘kugelblitz’, meaning ‘ball lightning’, and many called Gotthard Heinrici, notorious for his lack of charisma and general harshness, ‘the poison dwarf’.
That’s one thing people rarely know about the Third Reich and which I find very interesting. The sheer number of times its leaders and officials insulted and derogated each other with barbed tongues, and the creativity with which they have done so, is pretty astounding.


What are some of the costliest mistakes ever made in history?

7/30/2019 01:43:00 PM 0
What are some of the costliest mistakes ever made in history?

When the Jin dynasty underestimated the Mongol Horde.

The painful thing about this, is that the Jin didn’t just underestimate the Mongols once, but several times. These mistakes resulted in one of the deadliest series of conquests in history.

In the 12th century the Mongols were a group of nomads living on the edge of civilization in northern Asia. They were expert horsemen, and had perfected the art of firing a bow while riding, which made them dangerous on the battlefield.

The Mongols had submitted to Chinese rule for centuries, and were constantly at war with other nomadic tribes in the region. Many of these wars were instigated by the Chinese as a means to keep the tribes divided.

Then Genghis Khan came to power, and united the various nomadic tribes of Northern Asia.

As Genghis Khan grew more powerful, and more tribes joined his cause, the Jin watched on. The Jin dynasty was one of the most powerful nations in East Asia. They had hundreds of thousands of soldiers at their disposal, one of the largest populations in the world, and some of the most advanced technology.

Despite their advantage, the Jin completely missed the ball when Genghis Khan rose to power. When the tribes were still divided the Jin could have easily defeated them, but instead they actually allied with Genghis Khan to defeat a mutual enemy, the Tatars.

As Genghis Khan expanded his power he began to raid the borders of the Western Xia dynasty, a state in central China.

(You can see the Jin in blue, and the Western Xia in Green)
These raids eventually turned into a full scale Mongol invasion of the Western Xia. The Emperor of the Western Xia repeatedly requested support from Jin, but the Jin dynasty refused to send assistance. They wanted to watch their two enemies, the Xia and Mongols, destroy each other, and didn’t consider the Mongols a great enough threat to get involved.

This was another fatal mistake, the combined armies of the Western Xia and Jin could have potentially defeated the Mongols and saved the lives of millions of people, but the Jin were too consumed in their own self interest to send assistance.

The Mongols surrounded the Western Xia capital of Yinchuan and forced them to surrender. A major factor in the decision to surrender was that no help was coming from Jin. Had the Jin sent help, the Western Xia could have potentially continued the war.

By now the Mongols controlled most of North Asia, including the Western Xia who became a vassal of the Mongol horde.

At this point the Jin could have begun preparations for war, but didn’t respect the Mongol threat enough. They could have drafted hundreds of thousands of soldiers, but instead wasted precious time tending to their own matters.

In 1211 the Mongols launched an invasion of the Jin dynasty. The Jin army that was sent to meet them was much smaller, undertrained, and horribly led. It was a mere fraction of the several hundred thousand troops the Jin could have had, if they respected the Mongol threat enough and had adequately prepared.

The Jin leadership balked at the ensuing Battle of Yehuling and missed an opportunity to attack the Mongols first in terrain that was ill suited for the Mongol horsemen. Instead they sent diplomats to try and negotiate peace, wasting time, and allowing the Mongols to formulate a plan to defeat them. The army was crushed and the Jin missed an opportunity to defeat the Mongols before they could further establish themselves in the region.

The Jin held off the Mongols for decades, a testament to how powerful the Jin actually were, but eventually they collapsed and were absorbed into the Mongol Empire.

In the end, the Jin dynasty made several disastrous mistakes. From failing to attack the Mongols first, to refusing to aid the Western Xia, to allowing Genghis Khan to become so powerful. The root cause of many of their mistakes though was overconfidence. They underestimated the power of the horde, and overestimated their own ability to defeat it.

The result of their indecision, overconfidence, and repeated mistakes was one of the deadliest military conflicts ever.

During the century after the invasion of Jin, the Mongols launched military campaigns across Eurasia that led to the deaths of as many as 40 million people. Some scholars argue that Mongol expansion also contributed to the spread of the Black Plague which killed an additional 200 million+ people. Regardless of whether the plague is connected or not, the Mongols killed a lot of people.

We are basically looking at one of the deadliest series of conquests in history, surpassed only by World War II, and possibly the Taiping Rebellion.

The cost of these wars was horrific. Tens of millions of lives lost, cities across Eurasia sacked, and entire regions depopulated for centuries to come. All this devastation came about because the Jin dynasty made the mistake of underestimating the power of the Mongols.


What is the most badass military operation in the history of humans?

7/29/2019 06:58:00 PM 0
What is the most badass military operation in the history of humans?

What is the most badass military operation in the history of humans?

Adolf Hitler puts Field Marshal Erwin Rommel in charge of the Atlantic Wall and as the commander of Army Group B, his order's are to defend German occupied Europe from an Allied invasion. Athough the D-day landings were a success in Normandy, the Allies continued to suffer heavy losses; this is in no doubt due to the leadership of Rommel.

On 25th July 1944, an six man SAS team parachuted into France with a mission: To kill or capture Field Marshal Erwin Rommel. The killing option… the most preferred outcome in Operation Gaff…

“Stand-up!” an RAF despatcher instructs six heavily armed SAS paratroopers to do so, they are now approaching their intended Drop-Zone. “Tell off for equipment check!” The RAF despatcher shouts above the noise.

“6, OK!”… “5, OK!”… 4, OK!”… “3, OK!”… “2, OK!”… And finally, Captain Jack William Raymond Lee who's in charge of the six man team of ‘cut-throats' shouts, “1, Portside stick-OK!”
The despatcher leads the stick towards the door, and the red light is indicated to Captain Jack Lee, resting his hand up on the fuselage, he waits for the light to to turn green. His mind goes back to the briefing they had on the 20th July 1944…

“Captain Jack Lee, back in March ’43, feasibility reports were made into how to kill Rommel.” The six man SAS team looked at each other with opened mouths. Brigadier McLeod was the man briefing the SAS team, and he was also the man assigning them for this mission, “Well, because of our continued and the mounting losses after D-day; this is partly, due to the Desert Foxes exceptional leadership and marshalling abilities… Monty has agreed for the plan for him to be removed from the picture.”

“Is that to kidnap him Brigadier?” Jake Lee asks.

“To kill Rommel would obviously be easier than to kidnap him and it's preferable to ensure the former rather than to attempt and fail the latter.”

The team briefing continued, they're told that the HQ of ‘Heeresgruppe ‘B' is at La-Roche-Guyron in the area of Rambouillet and that it'll be the place Rommel is HQ'd. Hiding up for two days, so they can conduct a close-target-recce of their objective until they are ready strike. The SAS team are also tasked with destroying petrol dumps and also target the transportation systems, this would severely damage the nazi war effort.

“OK gentleman, if there's no other questions, you'll be parachuted into La-Roche-Guyron, on Tuesday 25th July.”

“GREEN LIGHT ON!… GO!!!” And with that, the six man SAS team jump out of the aircraft. All six descended to earth like birds of prey, just like the sparrowhawk. Once all six landed safely, they collected their equipment and then they patrol off to find a suitable hide for their OP.

17th July 1944 - As Field Marshal Erwin Rommel was returning to his HQ after visiting a SS Panzer Corps; near Saint-Foy-de-Montgommery, there's two Hawker Typhoons on a sortie.

Fighter pilots Charley Fox of 412 Squadron RAF, along with his wing-man Ed Prizer are the ones at the controls, “Red One… this is Red Two, large black car travelling at high speed, on my left 11 o'clock!” Charley informed his wing-man, “Looks like someone important.” It was, no other than Rommel himself. The Typhoon went in to attack, and started firing at approximately 300 yards strafing the car, causing it to crash.

Rommel thrown from the car and suffered some very bad head injuries, he was immediately hospitalised and in such a critical condition they thought he was not going to make.

28 July 1944 - A young lady from the French Residence has managed to make contact with Captain Jack Lee, the meeting is at a prearranged rendezvous. “Bonjour, Capitine. I've information about Rommel.” she continued, “His car was attacked by the RAF’s fighter planes, he is now in hospital.” So, that plan was over before it even started.

“Set the fuse for a 30 minute delay.” Jack Lee said to one of his men, whom at the very moment was laying an explosive charge on a railway line for a train that'll be arriving in 30 minutes. Jack Lee continued going over the plan, “And once the Germans have all their resources here dealing with this, we'll be attacking their HQ in the town of Mantes.”

As planned the German forces were dealing with the derailed train and the carnage caused by the explosives. 

The SAS team then begins the assult, one of Jack Lee's men acts as fire support he has the Light-Machine-Gun and has started to fire a ‘hailstorm’ of bullets into the Germans HQ. Captain Jack Lee along with the other team members make a right-flanking attack into the back of the building, as soon as they ‘posted' the grenades through the doors and windows they then go in systematically clearing the building. This assult resulted in 12 German soldiers killed.

On the 12th August when they linked up with the advancing American forces and in doing so it ended Operation Gaff. The six man SAS team had (apart from the Germans HQ), had derailed several trains and destroyed a number of trucks.

I've tried to tell this story in a how-I-saw it way, when I'm able to; so… that, in my opinion is the most badass military operation in the history of humans.


7/29/2019 04:00:00 PM 0


Nefertiti, also called Neferneferuaten-Nefertiti, (flourished 14th century BCE), queen of Egypt and wife of King Akhenaton (formerly Amenhotep IV; reigned c. 1353–36 BCE), who played a prominent role in the cult of the sun god known as the Aton.

Nefertiti’s parentage is unrecorded, but, as her name translates as “A Beautiful Woman Has Come,” early Egyptologists believed that she must have been a princess from Mitanni (Syria). 

There is strong circumstantial evidence, however, to suggest that she was the Egyptian-born daughter of the courtier Ay, brother of Akhenaton’s mother, Tiy. Although nothing is known of Nefertiti’s parentage, she did have a younger sister, Mutnodjmet. Nefertiti bore six daughters within 10 years of her marriage, the elder three being born at Thebes, the younger three at Tell el-Amarna.

Two of her daughters became queens of Egypt.

The earliest images of Nefertiti come from the Theban tombs of the royal butler Parennefer and the vizier Ramose, where she is shown accompanying her husband. In the Theban temple known as Hwt-Benben (“Mansion of the Benben Stone”; the benben was a cult object associated with solar ritual), Nefertiti played a more prominent role, usurping kingly privileges in order to serve as a priest and offer to the Aton. 

A group of blocks recovered from Karnak(Luxor) and Hermopolis Magna (Al-Ashmunayn) shows Nefertiti participating in the ritual smiting of the female enemies of Egypt. She wears her own unique headdress—a tall, straight-edged, flat-topped blue crown

By the end of Akhenaton’s fifth regnal year, the Aton had become Egypt’s dominant national god. The old state temples were closed and the court transferred to a purpose-built capital city, Akhetaton (Amarna). Here Nefertiti continued to play an important religious role, worshipping alongside her husband and serving as the female element in the divine triad formed by the god Aton, the king Akhenaton, and his queen. 

Her sexuality, emphasized by her exaggeratedly feminine body shape and her fine linen garments, and her fertility, emphasized by the constant appearance of the six princesses, indicate that she was considered a living fertility goddess. 

Nefertiti and the royal family appeared on private devotional stelae and on the walls of nonroyal tombs, and images of Nefertiti stood at the four corners of her husband’s sarcophagus.

Some historians, having considered her reliefs and statuary, believe that Nefertiti may have acted as queen regnant—her husband’s coruler rather than his consort. However, the evidence is by no means conclusive, and there is no written evidence to confirm her political status.

Soon after Akhenaton’s 12th regnal year, one of the princesses died, three disappeared (and are also presumed to have died), and Nefertiti vanished. The simplest inference is that Nefertiti also died, but there is no record of her death and no evidence that she was ever buried in the Amarna royal tomb. 

Early Egyptologists, misunderstanding the textual evidence recovered from the Maru-Aten sun temple at Amarna, deduced that Nefertiti had separated from Akhenaton and had retired to live either in the north palace at Amarna or in Thebes. This theory is now discredited. Others have suggested that she outlived her husband, took the name Smenkhkare, and ruled alone as female king before handing the throne to Tutankhamen.

 There is good evidence for a King Smenkhkare, but the identification in the 20th century of a male body buried in the Valley of the Kings as Tutankhamen’s brother makes it unlikely that Nefertiti and Smenkhkare were the same person.

Nefertiti’s body has never been discovered. Had she died at Amarna, it seems inconceivable that she would not have been buried in the Amarna royal tomb. 

But the burial in the Valley of the Kings confirms that at least one of the Amarna burials was reinterred at Thebes during Tutankhamen’s reign. 

Egyptologists have therefore speculated that Nefertiti may be one of the unidentified bodies recovered from the caches of royal mummies in the Valley of the Kings. In the early 21st century attention has focused on the “Younger Lady” found in the tomb of Amenhotep II, although it is now accepted that this body is almost certainly too young to be Nefertiti.

Amarna was abandoned soon after Akhenaton’s death, and Nefertiti was forgotten until, in 1912, a German archaeological mission led by Ludwig Borchardt discovered a portrait bust of Nefertiti lying in the ruins of the Amarna workshop of the sculptor Thutmose.

 The bust went on display at a museum in Berlin in the 1920s and immediately attracted worldwide attention, causing Nefertiti to become one of the most recognizable and, despite a missing left eye, most beautiful female figures from the ancient world
  • Why is Nefertiti so famous?
Nefertiti was a queen of Egypt and wife of King Akhenaton, who played a prominent role in changing Egypt's traditional polytheistic religion to one that was monotheistic, worshipping the sun god known as Aton. An elegant portrait bust of Nefertiti now in Berlin is perhaps one of the most well-known ancient sculptures.

  • What was Nefertiti's reign like?
Some historians believe that Nefertiti may have acted as her husband’s coruler rather than his consort, but the evidence is not conclusive. Nonetheless, she played an important religious role, worshipping the god Aton alongside her husband. Representations of Nefertiti with her six daughters suggest that she was also considered a living fertility goddess.

  • What was Nefertiti's family like?
Nefertiti’s parentage is unrecorded, but there is strong circumstantial evidence to suggest that she was the Egyptian-born daughter of the courtier Ay, a maternal uncle of her husband, Akhenaton. She had a younger sister, Mutnodjmet. Nefertiti bore six daughters within 10 years of her marriage, two of whom became queens of Egypt.

  • How did Nefertiti die?
 Soon after Akhenaton’s 12th regnal year, one of the princesses died, three disappeared, and Nefertiti vanished. The simplest inference is that Nefertiti also died, but there is no record of her death and no evidence that she was ever buried in the Amarna royal tomb. Her body has never been found.


Viking History: Facts & Myths

7/25/2019 03:59:00 PM 0
Viking History: Facts & Myths

Viking History: Facts & Myths

The Vikings were a seafaring people from the late eighth to early 11th century who established a name for themselves as traders, explorers and warriors. They discovered the Americas long before Columbus and could be found as far east as the distant reaches of Russia. 
While these people are often attributed as savages raiding the more civilized nations for treasure and women, the motives and culture of the Viking people are much more diverse. These raiders also facilitated many changes throughout the lands from economics to warfare.

Many historians commonly associate the term "Viking" to the Scandinavian term vikingr, a word for "pirate." However, the term is meant to reference oversea expeditions, and was used as a verb by the Scandinavian people for when the men traditionally took time out of their summers to go "a Viking." While many would believe these expeditions entailed the raiding of monasteries and cities along the coast, many expeditions were actually with the goal of trade and enlisting as foreign mercenaries.

The Viking Age generally refers to the period from A.D. 800, a few years after the earliest recorded raid, until the 1050s, a few years before the Norman Conquest of England in 1066, according to Angelo Forte, Richard D. Oram and Frederik Pedersen, authors of "Viking Empires" (Cambridge University Press, 2005). During this time, the reach of the Scandinavian people extended to all corners of northern Europe, and many other nations found Vikings raiding their coasts. The farthest reported records of Vikings were in Baghdad for the trading of goods like fur, tusks and seal fat.
A Viking raid on the monks of Lindisfarne, a small island located off the northeast coast of England, marked the start of the Viking migration from Scandinavia in 793. This location was a well-known abbey of learning, famous throughout the continent for the knowledgeable monks and its extensive library. During this raid, monks were killed, thrown into the sea or taken as slaves along with many treasures of the church, and the library itself razed. This single event set the stage for how Vikings would be perceived throughout the Viking Age: savage warriors with no respect for religion or appreciation for learning.
In the years that followed the initial raid, coastal villages, monasteries and even cities found themselves besieged by these sea-based foreign intruders. Due to the frequency of sea attacks, many developments were made in developing fortifications in the forms of walled-in harbors and sea-facing stone walls, defenses that proved to be quite effective at deterring raids.
The reason behind these attacks is a topic of debate among academics, though the reasons often stem from such things as the Christian persecution and forced baptism of pagans to reduced agricultural outputs in the Scandinavian region. Many more documented reasons might have prompted these people to leave their cold and harsh homes to seek out the means to survive elsewhere. Yet, despite how unforgiving their homeland may have been, most Vikings still returned to their homeland at the end of each season with treasure, slaves and goods to survive yet another winter.

At the heart of the Viking culture lies the Viking ship. These extraordinary vessels — longships in particular — shaped the lives of the sea-faring Norse and changed the course of European history. 
Honed for more than 10 centuries, the ship-building skills of the Norse led to a variety of vessels — from small fishing boats and big-bellied cargo vessels to the famous lightning-fast longships used for raiding. But no matter the size, most of the ships were designed to be narrow in shape with short drafts (vertical distance between waterline and bottom of ship), features that gave them high adaptability for use in the ocean and rivers. 
The Vikings' ship-building craft reached a high point in the 7th century when they invented the keel, a structural beam that runs from the bow to the stern and sits lower than the main body of the ship. This feature increased speed and stability and prevented unwanted lateral movement, according to Yachting & Boating World. The keel, along with the addition of a large mast and sail, would ultimately allow the Norsemen to make long journeys across the North Atlantic. These vessels are now looked back upon as revolutionary in design and a technological miracle.
To begin the ship-building process, the Vikings would drive wedges into freshly-cut trees until the wood split along the grain. Up to 20 great oaks might be cut down for a ship. The wood was shaped and arranged so that the planks fit together perfectly in a clinker construction, overlapping like a fan. In clinker shipbuilding, the outside is started first, and then the frame is put inside it, according to the living history site Regia Anglorum. The ship was coated with a watertight mixture of tar-soaked animal hair, wool or moss and stabilized with iron rivets. The end result was an incredibly fast and flexible longship that nothing could catch. 
The men rowed with a series of oars, supplemented with a large sail most likely made of wool. Rather than a rudder, the longships had a steerboard fastened to the right-hand side of the ship at the stern, according to Royal Museums Greenwich. 
By the middle of the 9th century, the raids really picked up as word spread across the Norse region of Europe's removable wealth. Norse villages and communities came together to build ships with the intention of improving their lives through the business of raiding. In 842, Vikings ruthlessly attacked Nantes on the French coast, and because of their ability to maneuver up rivers, they went on to raid towns as far inland as Paris, Limoges, Orleans, Tours and Nimes, according to History.com. 
The Vikings paid as much attention to art as to craft. The longships were usually adorned with carved dragon heads at the bow, which were believed to keep evil spirits away. The dragon head coupled with a large square, red-striped sail would come to be known as the signature of the Vikings. The sight would strike fear into the hearts of Europeans for three centuries.

The Vikings set up colonies on the west coast of Greenland during the 10th century. The Viking sagas tell of journeys they undertook from these Greenland colonies to the New World. They mention places named "Helluland" (widely believed to be Baffin Island), "Markland" (widely believed to be Labrador) and "Vinland" (a more mysterious location which some archaeologists believe could be Newfoundland). 

At present the only confirmed Viking site in the New World is located at L'anse aux Meadows on the northern tip of Newfoundland. That site was excavated in the 1960s. 
Additionally there are three possible Viking sitesthat archaeologists have recently excavated in Canada. Two of the possible sites are located in Newfoundland while a third site is located on Baffin Island in the Canadian Arctic. 

One possible Viking site is located at Point Rosee in southern Newfoundland; at the site, archaeologists found a possible bog iron roasting hearth beside a structure made with turf.
 Another possible Viking site is located at Sop's arm in Newfoundland and includes a series of "pitfalls" that would have been used to trap large animals such as caribou. These pitfalls are arranged in a straight line, and archaeologists believe that the Vikings could have driven the animals toward these pitfalls where the animals could have been trapped and killed. At the third possible Viking site, located at Nanook on Baffin Island, researchers found artifacts that may have been used in metal production and the remains of a structure that may have been built by the Vikings. 

Many modern perceptions of Vikings found their origins through Catholic propaganda. Upon the sacking of multiple Christian facilities and the loss of countless relics and treasures, the Catholic ministry sought to dehumanize them. Until Queen Victoria's rule of Britain, the Vikings were still portrayed as a violent and barbaric people. During the 19th and 20th centuries, perceptions changed to the point where Vikings were glamorized as noble savages with horned helmets, a proud culture and a feared prowess in battle.

With regards to the more popular Viking myths created through these misperceptions, the following are proven to be clearly false according to historical record:
  1. Vikings wore horned helmets
    Vikings traditionally went bareheaded or wore simple leather and metal-frame helmets with the occasional face guard. The idea behind horned helmets came about from the Viking revival during Victoria's reign.
  2. They were filthy and unkempt
    Archaeologists find evidence on a regular basis of combs, spoons and other grooming utensils that indicate the Viking people were very keen on maintaining personal hygiene.
  1. They spent all their time raiding and warring
    While raiding proved an excellent source of income, many of the Vikings held farms back in their homeland that their wives maintained during Viking season. When the men returned home from a raid, they resumed their normal routine of farming.
  1. Vikings were a unified army
    Due to the difficult geographic location, the Scandinavian people were very spread out to conserve limited farmland. In addition, the penetration of Christianity caused many great divisions among the people still worshipping the traditional Nordic pantheon, further emphasizing the divided nature of the people.
  2. They were large and heavily muscled
    Due to the short summer seasons, growing crops was difficult and resources were always scarce. As a result, many of the Scandinavian people were much smaller than commonly depicted due to limited food sources.
While the living conditions in Scandinavian regions were certainly harsh and made a hard people, many Vikings suffered from the scarcity of resources and the people set up their homes over great distances with no real unified leadership. 
During the Viking Age, the Scandinavian people were able to make a stronger push to the outside worlds and create a reputation for themselves beyond simple barbarism. 
While some Vikings were driven with the lust for riches, many sought more peaceful economic relationships with the surrounding nations.

Indeed, as Forte et al wrote, there was no dramatic end to the Viking Age
The authors contend that the Scandinavian kingdoms were slowly acculturated and integrated into the "wider body politic of European Christendom."