INTHEPROF

9.19.2019

What Dark Energy and Dark Matter?

9/19/2019 06:35:00 PM 0
What Dark Energy and Dark Matter?


What Dark Energy and Dark Matter?

Matter, as we know it; Atoms, stars, and galaxies, planets, and trees, rocks and us. This matter accounts for less than 5% of the known universe.      




  Dark Matter                                Dark Energy      

About 25% is dark matter, and 70% is dark energy. Both of which are invisible. This is kind of strange because it suggests that everything we experience is really only a tiny fraction of reality. 


But it gets worse. We really have no clue what dark matter and energy are, or how they work. We are pretty sure they exist though. So, what do we know? 

Dark matter is the stuff that makes it possible for galaxies to exist. When we calculated why the universe is structured the way it is, it quickly became clear that there's just not enough normal matter. 

The gravity of the visible matter is not strong enough to form galaxies and complex structures. 

The stars would more likely be scattered all over the place and not form galaxies. So, we know there is something else inside and around them. Something that doesn't emit or reflect light. 

Something dark... but besides being able to calculate the existence of dark matter, we can see it... kind of. Places with a high concentration of dark matter bend light passing nearby. 

So we know there's something there that interacts with gravity. Right now, we have more ideas about what dark energy is not than what it is! We know dark matter is not just clouds of normal matter without stars, because it would emit particles we could detect. 

Dark matter is not anti-matter, because anti-matter produces unique gamma rays when it reacts with normal matter. Dark matter is also not made up of black holes, very compact objects that violently affect their surroundings, while dark matter seems to be scattered all over the place. 


Basically, we only know 3 things for sure; 

1. Something is out there. 


2. It interacts with gravity. 


3. There is a lot of it. 


Dark matter is probably made up of a complicated exotic particle that doesn't interact with light and matter in a way we expect, but right now, we just don't know. 


Dark energy is even more strange and mysterious. We can't detect it, we can't measure it and we can't taste it. But we do see its effects very clearly. 

In 1929, Edward Hubble examined how the wavelength of light emitted by distant galaxies, shifts towards the red end of the electromagnetic spectrum as it travels through space. 


He found that fainter, more distant galaxies showed a large degree of redshift; closer galaxies, not so much. 

Hubble determined that this was because the universe itself is expanding. 


The redshift occurs because the wavelengths of light are stretched as the universe expands.


More recent discoveries have shown that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. Before that, it was thought that the pull of gravity would cause the expansion to either slow down or even retract and collapse in on itself at some point. 


Space doesn't change its properties as it expands; there's just more of it. 


New space is constantly created everywhere, galaxies are tight bound clusters of stuff held together by gravity so we don't experience this expansion in our daily lives. But we see it everywhere around us. 


Wherever there is empty space in the universe, more is forming every second. So, dark energy seems to be some kind of energy intrinsic to empty space. 

Energy is stronger than anything else we know and it keeps getting stronger as time passes by. 


Empty space has more energy than everything else in the universe combined. 


We have multiple ideas about what dark energy might be. One idea is, the dark energy is not a thing, but just a property of space. Empty space is nothing, it has its own energy. It can generate more space and is quite active. 


So, as the universe expands, it could be that just more and more space appears to fill the gaps and this leads to a faster-expanding universe. 


This idea is close to an idea that Einstein had back in 1917, of the concept of a cosmological constant, a force that counteracted the force of gravity. 


The only problem is, that when we tried to calculate the amount of this energy the result was so wrong and weird, that it only added to the confusion. 

Another idea is, that empty space is actually full of temporary, virtual particles that spontaneously and continually form from nothing and then disappear into nothing again. The energy form those particles could be dark energy. 


Or maybe dark energy is an unknown kind of dynamic energy fluid or field which permeates the entire universe, but somehow has the opposite effect on the universe than normal energy and matter. But if it exists, we don't know how and where or how we could detect it. So there are still a lot of questions to answer. 


Our theories about dark matter and dark energy are still just that; theories. On one hand, this is kind of frustrating, on the other hand, this is frontier science making it very exciting. 

It shows us that no matter how much we feel we're on top of things, we are still very much apes with smartphones, on a tiny fragile island in space looking into the sky wondering how our universe works There is so much left to learn, and that is awesome. 




9.17.2019

Future Weapons

9/17/2019 01:46:00 PM 0
Future Weapons

Future Weapons




Weapons and warfare are getting more and more subtle with the newest piece of land technology 


Is beginning to look a lot of sort of a video game with wirelessly connected troopers act via sound and vision to drones carrying satellite-linked Wi-Fi hotspots and given orders by commanders that might air the opposite facet of the planet however the weapons of the longer term will not want troopers or commanders to work as a result of they'll be ready to create the choice of what or whom to focus on themselves exploitation computer science. 


The Pentagon is disbursement $ billions on developing a replacement generation of deadly autonomous weapons or LAWS like robotic fighter jets, missiles that decide what to attack ships however hunt enemy submarines. 

For currently remote weapons like UAVs or pilotless aerial vehicles square measure directed by humans from the security of cubicles typically tons of or thousands of miles far from a conflict zone and intrinsically any call to use deadly force is often created by someone. 


But before we have a tendency to begin thinking Skynet goes to require over and we have a tendency to'll have terminators roaming around we square measure still an extended approach from the Hollywood version of A.I. though we've got seen the newest generation of robots just like the Hub of the Universe Dynamics Atlas and it's uncanny ability to steer and move sort of a human we cannot be seeing a military of robotic troopers anytime shortly. 

Whilst we expect of A.I. getting used with the newest hardware. the u.  s. Air Force is functioning on the exploitation of older craft refitted with autonomous controls. 


The project that is termed "Loyal Wingman" sees retired f-16 reused and fitted with enough autonomy so they might fly aboard the newest f-35's and take cues from a personality's pilot in another craft even as if a true airplane pilot were there and doubtless before driverless cars can create it onto the general public roads. 


Autonomous missiles square measure {an square measurea|a neighborhood|a district|a region|a locality|a vicinity|a part|a section} that are already in use with systems just like the British fireplace forget native sulfur missiles. Once it's been fit with target data it will work on its own to pick the most effective target and collaborate for up to twenty-four different missiles to coordinate a staggered attack against swarms of enemy vehicles or boats and it cannot notice a target it'll destroy. Drones square measure another massive space for military A.I. 


The Israel part Industries HAROP could be a little anti-radiation drone that is additionally referred to as the "suicide drone" it will keep mobile on top of a battlespace for up to 6 hours trying to find specific radio transmission sort of a radiolocation supply or enemy defense system, however, in theory, might seek for things sort of a specific signal from a transportable. 


The HAROP can be a point on the signal and deliberately crash into and destroy the target of it's aboard payload. 
Meanwhile, DARPA, the military analysis arm of the Pentagon has additionally unveiled the "Sea Hunter" Associate in Nursing autonomous surface vessel that's designed to remain stumped for months and track even quietly submarines anyplace within the world as a result of it's designed to not have any human crew throughout its operation. 

It should navigate busy shipping lanes Associate in Nursingd act with an intelligent human opponent all by itself then communicate the information back to its center or take the suitable action if it were to be armed. tho' these systems will add Associate in Nursing autonomous mode the new generation of A.I. weapons can take this to ensuing stage rather than being shown a target or partly pilotless these new weapons can go and appearance for targets and choose whether or not or to not destroy them with none human intervention recently government agency showed a system employing a drone that might be bought from amazon once loaded with new A.I. package it becomes a golem that may then hunt and establish armed men with AK-47's during a simulation of a middle-eastern village at a military testing place the U.S. 

It was even capable of finding armed men once they were hidden within the shadows if this technique were to be armed just like the HAROP or be ready to guide a missile to the target it might become a formidable searching system. 

This sort of factor was once preserved of Hollywood however it'll be dominant the longer-term autonomous weapons at intervals years instead of decades these new weapons would provide unmatched speed and preciseness over any human system and is currently being referred to as the largest step-change since the creation of powder and nuclear weapons. 

Although this technology can offer the sting to the America and their allies which will be transitory as others square measure finance heavily during this space and in contrast to the event of the fission bomb that needed technologies that were terribly tough to make, are often} principally software-driven which suggests it can be a great deal easier to develop given the programming resources. Once this has been done they might be cheaply factory-made by any important military power that additionally means that they might simply notice their approach into the hands of knave states or extremists. Aerial vehicles like drones. 

UAVs and missiles are going to be the primary to use this however their square measure already entails such weapons to be illegal as a result of the issues over there moral and legal position. 

If Associate in Nursing autonomous weapon committed a law-breaking WHO would be accountable if no human-made the choice. Some say that deadly autonomous weapons can decrease casualties as a result of they'll be programmed to follow rules of engagement strictly and analyze the case logically. 

They don't have emotions they do not get tired, stressed or distracted sort of human competent might and thus they're less possible to create mistakes and kill civilians. 

Whatever your views you'll wear it there's Associate in Nursing inexorable drive for AI within the military and therefore the rise of the robots has already started.

9.16.2019

The 8 Real Badass Women From History

9/16/2019 07:22:00 PM 0
The 8 Real  Badass Women From History


8 Real  Badass Women From History 

It's International Women's Day on 8 March while it's also Women's History Month too



NUMBER 8: 

BOUDICCA [Boo-de-ca] In 60AD the lands of Ancient British Queen Boudicca were conquered by the Romans. 
When she opposed their authority, the Romans had her publicly whipped and her daughters raped in front of her. Boudica responded by raising a giant rebel army of over 200,000 warriors. She waged a brutal revenge campaign against the Romans, defeating the Roman ninth Legion and plundering Rome’s three largest British cities. It took an entire three Roman legions to finally put a stop to her quest for vengeance. 

Sources; BBC, Tacitus, Annals of Rome 14.33, historic-uk.com, Dio, Live Science. 

NUMBER 7: 

NELLIE BLY In 1887 investigative journalist Nellie Bly was locked in an asylum for 10 days, after she courageously feigned insanity to expose the abusive treatment of patients at an infamous New York City mental institution. 
Bly’s documentation of the brutality and neglect that patients were subjected to shocked the American public. It led to a grand jury investigation and an extra 1 million dollars being allocated for the care of the mentally ill in New York. 
As well as her charitable journalism, in 1888 Bly gained infamy for her record-breaking trip around the world in just 72 days, traveling by ship and rail. 

Sources: Brain Pickings, Mental Floss, Nellie Bly Online, Britannica. 

NUMBER 6: 

EMMELINE PANKHURST  was a leading British women’s rights activist and suffragette, who was determined to win women the equal right to vote. 
Pankhurst founded the Women’s Social and Political Union in 1903 and, in 1910, she led a march of more than 300 women on parliament. 
She was arrested on numerous occasions and went on hunger strike while imprisoned. Two days after the outbreak of WWI, Pankhurst called for an immediate halt to militant activism, so that women could focus on patriotic activities instead. Following the impressive female contribution to the war effort, the Representation of the People Act was passed in 1918, offering the vote to British women over 30. 

Sources: BBC, Biography, History Learning Site, Spartacus Educational, The Week. 

NUMBER 5: 

ZINA PORTNOVA After witnessing a Nazi solider physically attack her grandmother, 15-year-old Zina Portnova decided to join the Belarusian resistance movement to fight the German occupation of the USSR. She learned to use weaponry and explosives, helping to destroy an enemy power plant, as well as a water station. Combined with her secret reports on German troop movements, it’s thought the teenager helped to kill over 100 Nazis. 
At one point, she used her position working in a kitchen to poison an entire German garrison. Sadly, Portnova was captured and executed aged just 17. 

Sources: Sakaida, H., Heroines of the Soviet Union 1941-45, prezi.com. 

NUMBER 4: 

AMELIA EARHART [Air-heart] In 1932 American aviator Amelia Earhart gained international fame after becoming the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean. 
The flight from America to North Ireland, which lasted almost 15 hours, was plagued by strong winds, icy conditions, and mechanical problems. 
Earhart was a prominent advocate of both feminism and the advancement of the aviation industry. 
She served as the first president of The Ninety-Nines, an organization of female pilots. 
During an attempt in 1937 to fly around the world, Earhart and her navigator Fred Noonan tragically disappeared while flying over the South Pacific Ocean. It is unknown what exactly went wrong and Earhart’s body was never found.

Sources: History, Americas Library, ameliaearhart.com, 

NUMBER 3: 

ANNIE SMITH PECK In an era before oxygen tanks, 19th century mountain climbing was incredibly dangerous. 
This didn’t put Annie Smith Peck off, though. Peck scaled all the major mountains of Europe and then became the first person to scale Peru’s highest peak, Mt. Huascarán. Peck was also a strong advocator of women’s rights, risking arrest for wearing trousers at a time when women were expected to wear long skirts. 
She even hung a ‘Votes for Women’ banner on the summit of several mountains she scaled. Peck continued to mountaineer late into her 80s and wrote four popular books on travel and exploration. 

Sources: Biography, Britannica, Rhode Island College. 

NUMBER 2: 

MALALA YOUSAFZAI [You-saff-ziy] Malala Yousafzai began campaigning for girls’ right to education when she was only 11-years-old. She grew up under oppressive Taliban occupation in Pakistan. 
She wrote articles and gave television interviews, using her public platform to speak out for equality. 
In October 2012, when Malala was just 15, a gunman boarded her schoolbus. Having asked for her by name, he shot her three times at close range. Miraculously, Malala survived. 
Her determination grew and today she continues on her mission to provide a voice for the 66 million girls who are deprived of education. Aged 17, Malala was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, making her the youngest ever Nobel laureate. 

Sources: Nobel Prize.org, BBC, Malala.org, Biography. 

NUMBER 1: 

MARIE CURIE Polish-born Marie Curie was a pioneering authority in the study of radioactivity, and a key figure in the discovery of polonium and radium. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize and also became the first person ever to win the award twice. 
During the First World War, Curie equipped ambulances with X-ray equipment and fearlessly drove them herself on the front line. 
In 1934 she died of leukemia, brought on by exposure to high-energy radiation during her research. Her selfless work was so dangerous that - even a century later - her notebooks are still too radioactive to handle. 

Sources: Mariecurie.org, BBC, Biography, Nobelprize.org, Famous Scientists. 

9.15.2019

Hitler ideology of communism

9/15/2019 03:51:00 PM 0
Hitler ideology of communism
WRITTEN BY:  Rida Mohssine
LAST UPDATED:  See Historical figures


Since Germany's military had to be reduced, Hitler could no longer remain a soldier after the war, but he kept working for the army as an informant. 



Adolf Hitler saliendo de la sede del partido Nazi (Munich, 1931)


After the war, communists in Germany had attempted a revolution, and the government was worried about communism in general, so Hitler was tasked with infiltrating and reporting on any new political parties that could pose a communist threat. 

A new party called the German Workers' Party threw up a whole bunch of red flags, so Hitler went along to one of their meetings but found that they weren't communists at all - they were extreme right, and shared many of his extreme beliefs, so he left the army, and signed up to join the party. His fantastic speaking abilities impressed the party's leadership and supporters, and he very quickly rose to the top. 

He decided that the party needs a makeover, so he renamed it to the National Socialist German Workers' Party, or Nazi for short, and he gave it a new color scheme. 

The Nazis weren't very specific on policy, but Hitler made extravagant promises to return Germany to it's former glory, by undoing the Treaty of Versailles, and reuniting all ethic Germans into one nation. 

He also said that only pure Aryan people should be allowed to be citizens And that all Jews would lose their citizenship. These ideas were already common in extreme right politics, but what set the Nazis apart was Hitler himself, and they quickly became the leading party on the extreme right. Many of the political parties in Germany at the time had paramilitary wings, and the Nazis were no different. 

Hitler set up the very descriptive "Hall Protection Detachment," later changed to the very delightful "Gymnastic and Sports Division," and finally settling on the ominous "Storm Detachment", or SA for short. 

Their job was to defend Nazi party meetings and intimidate political opponents, and they were frequently engaged in battles with communists on the streets. Since the allies had demanded a reduction in Germany's military size, many trained soldiers were left unemployed. They liked the Nazi ideology, and it was only natural for them to join the SA, which grew larger and larger over time. 

The new democratic government that formed after World War I was pretty weak and ineffective. In order to pay reparations to the Allies, it started printing more money. 

The problem is that printing money doesn't actually give a country more money - it just makes money less valuable. So as the country printed more and more money, it became worth less and less and the currency crashed. In 1919, one U.S. dollar was worth about for German marks, but by December 1923, one U.S. dollar was equal to 4.2 trillion marks. The price of bread rose to 200 billion marks. 

Banknotes became worthless. Unsurprisingly, in such an economic crisis, Germany struggled to pay the allies. The French were pissed about this. So they occupied the Ruhr, an area full of factories, and took the economic output from the area as payment. 

They treated the German civilians badly and in total approximately a hundred and thirty Germans were killed during the occupation. Germans were furious and Hitler and the Nazis thought that now would be a great time to lead a revolution. In November 1923, inspired by something a certain bold Italian man did a year earlier, Hitler stormed a meeting at a beer hall, and called for an uprising against the government. 

With his supporters, he marched on the streets of Munich, hoping the police would join his side. They did not. *Gun Shots* Hitler was put on trial for treason. He could have been sentenced to life, but the right-wing judges thought he was a pretty cool guy. Hitler knew the judges and knew that they would be lenient. 

So he took the opportunity to make impassioned speeches during the trial and in the end he was sentenced to just five years in prison, of which he only served nine months, and when I said prison, it was more like a pleasant hotel stay where he had plenty of time to write a book. 

The whole affair was covered by the media nationwide, and it made Hitler famous. Hitler and his extreme message were now known throughout Germany. 

But the everyday German still didn't care much for him. In the 1928 election, the Nazis only one about 2% of the vote. Many were still intimidated by all the violence and the shouting and how un-politician-like he was, but a new economic crisis would change all of that. 

To help Germany pay its reparations, America agreed to give it loans. In October 1929, the Wall Street crash happened and America wanted its money back. 

The economic strain that stood on an already struggling Germany was severe. Unemployment skyrocketed. Poverty was widespread and Germans were sick of it. 
It was clear that the newly formed democracy wasn't working. 
In the face of crisis, Germans began moving to the political extremes. 
If you were German and want to change, your choices now were either the communists or the Nazis. Hitler claimed that he was the only one who could return Germany to its former glory. The Nazi party used propaganda to make Hitler seem like a great and powerful man and they gave the German people a scapegoat to blame for all their suffering. 

The promise of a single strong dictator was a breath of fresh air for Germans after years of failing democracy. Some bought into his extreme ideology. Some didn't agree with the racism, but were willing to vote for him anyway. 

Many didn't know much about politics at all, but just got caught up in the hype. Election after election, the Nazis became more and more popular until in 1932, they became the biggest party in the German parliament. 

Hitler came to truly believe that he was some sort of great destined savior of Germany. He turned megalomaniac. 

He decided to run for president and did surprisingly well, but still lost to the extremely popular World War I general, Paul von Hindenburg. Since he was now the leader of the biggest party, though, he demanded President Hindenburg make him chancellor. 

But Hindenburg was reluctant, seeing that Hitler was clearly such a big racist. Industry leaders urged Hindenburg to give Hitler the chancellorship, fearing the rising support for communism, and leader of the center party von Papen, who had been secretly negotiating with Hitler, said to Hindenburg, "How about we make Hitler chancellor on the condition that I get to be vice chancellor and most government jobs go to us, moderate conservatives. 

That way I'll get to keep my power, I mean, we'll get to keep our power and we'll control Hitler like he's our angry little puppet. What could possibly go wrong?" As it turned out, EVERYTHING. Hitler became chancellor of Germany in January 1933, but he was not yet a dictator. In February, the German Parliament building was set on fire. Historians still aren't sure who did it and many suspect the Nazis did it themselves, but Hitler blamed the communists, and he convinced president Hindenburg to sign an emergency decree allowing him to imprison all communists and other political opponents. 

Communists and others were sent off to the first concentration camp in Dachau. At this time, the elderly president Hindenburg passed away, giving Hitler the perfect opportunity. He introduced a law to parliament that would allow him to make all future laws and decisions entirely on his own. 

With his political opponents in prison and the SA intimidating others, Hitler's law passed. Just two months after becoming chancellor, Hitler was now a dictator. He still had one problem. The leader of the SA wanted the SA to take over the job of the regular German Army and the German Army didn't like that idea. 

Hitler needed to maintain the support of his professionally trained German army, more so than his rough and rowdy SA. 

So one night in June 1934, he had Rohm and many other of his own SA officers rounded up and murdered. 
While he was at it, he took the opportunity to brutally settle some personal scores as well. 
Politicians who had disagreed with him in the past, reporters who had printed negative articles about him, one guy who did absolutely nothing, but they thought he was someone else. 
In some cases, even their families were murdered. 
In total, up to 200 people were killed in what became known as the Night of the Long Knives. The army, now satisfied that they wouldn't be replaced, pledged total allegiance to their new fuhrer and Hitler's control was now absolute. 

Life in Germany changed violently. Freedom of the press, expression, and public assembly were suspended. Jews were initially branded and their businesses boycotted, and eventually, Hitler would go on to have six million Jewish men, women, and children killed in concentration camps. 

Hundreds of thousands of people were forced into sterilization for physical and mental imperfections. 
The Hitler Youth became a way to brainwash the young. Boys were trained to fight and returned home from camp violent. Girls were told their purpose was to have many pure Aryan children and they would sometimes return from camp pregnant. 

When their parents were understandably horrified, their children would threaten to turn them over to the Gestapo for standing in the way of Germany's greatness. 

The standard greeting changed and you could be sent to a concentration camp for not using it. This way, it seemed like everyone was a Nazi supporter. 
If you dare to pose Hitler or speak out against him in any way, you also would be sent to a concentration camp. German Nationalism captivated the young Adolf. 

Extreme ideology and anti-semitism vested in him as a young man living a hard life on the streets. Germany's defeat in the First World War filled him with hatred and a thirst for vengeance. A political movement that treated him like a god and hundreds of thousands looking up to him as their savior made him a megalomaniac, and soon, his aggressive foreign policies would drag the world into a second tragic global conflict, otherwise known as... World War 2
Adolphus Hitler was born in 1889 in a small town in Austria-Hungary.

A Biography of Adolf Hitler's life

9/15/2019 03:50:00 PM 0
A Biography of Adolf Hitler's life
WRITTEN BY:  Rida Mohssine
LAST UPDATED:  See Historical figures
Adolphus Hitler was born  in 1889 in a small town in Austria-Hungary. 


Hitler at school 1899

His father, Alois Schicklgruber, was born out of wedlock, but eventually changed his name to that of his stepfather, becoming Alois Hitler. 


Alois was a mid-level Austrian customs officer-- not really rolling in cash, but certainly rolling in women. He married a rich, older lady, but then immediately started having affairs, including one with a much younger house servant. 

A few years later, he left his sick wife to be with his mistress, but since the Catholic Church didn't allow divorce at the time, he couldn't marry her. 

So he waited for his old wife to die and had a child in the meantime. 

Then his wife died, so he married his mistress and had another child, but then his new wife got sick, so he employed his much, much younger cousin Clara to take care of her. Then when his new wife died, he immediately got Clara-- his cousin-- pregnant, and then married her... in that order. (You rockstar.) Clara and Alois had three children together who all tragically died while in infancy, so when the fourth child, Adolph, came along, Clara spoiled him rotten. 

The Hitler's had two more kids and the family moved around a few times, meaning Adolph had to attend five different elementary schools. Adolph's father was strict, quick to anger, and took most of it out on the eldest son until he had enough and ran away at the age of fourteen, leaving seven year old Adolph to do most of the chores and get berated by his father. 

The result was a difficult relationship with his dad while he was super attached to his mother who worried over him and his health excessively Hitler did well in school. At first, his grades were good and his teachers praised him. 

He was popular with the other kids and enjoyed gathering them together to play war games. He also loved reading and particularly liked stories about Cowboys and Indians. 

As he grew older, though, he started to get into trouble. He was caught smoking once, organised a raid on a local orchard, tormented his pro-Austria religion teacher with symbolic gestures displaying his allegiance the idea of united germanic people under a greater german state and defines of Habsburg Austria, you know, the usual. 

All of this enraged Adolph's father, who punished him severely. The area of Austria-Hungary that Hitler lived in was once part of the German Confederation, and many of the people who lived there considered themselves to be German. 

Adolph tended to just go against whatever his father said and since his father was an Austrian Public Official, Hitler got big into German nationalism. This enraged Adolph's father, who punished him severely. Around this time a family tragedy struck. His six-year-old brother, whom he loved a lot, died of measles when Adolph was 10 and was buried in the cemetery just across from their home. 

Around this time neighbors reported a change in the young boy. Strange behaviors such as talking to trees and staying up late staring at the stars from the cemetery walls. He lost interest in religion and his school grades started to decline which enraged his father, who punished him severely. 

It also didn't help that he had just entered high school and the cool city boys treated him like a rural peasant he had to Repeat a grade and had little interest in most school subjects instead spending his time reading and drawing which he was quite good at One day his father said son someday, you'll be a big balls public official like me and Adolf replied, no father I'm going to become an artist and soar high above the clouds with the eagles this enraged his father But by this time he was an old-ass man so he just sort of let it go and then died of a lung hemorrhage hitler just about passed his final semester and Celebrated in the typical way by getting blackout drunk and wiping his ass with the certificate However, he didn't take the overall final school exam instead Just dropping out. 

The now 16 year old boy was unemployed without much purpose in life and for the next three years He stayed that way he spent most of his time at the opera with his only friend August Kubizek August Kubizek later wrote his memories of the Young Hitler and said he was passionately interested in many things, felt he was in many ways better than others his age, was quick to anger just like his father, and an Incredible speaker once he was ranting. 

when he was 18 He said a very sad goodbye to his mother and went to Vienna to take the entrance exam for art school he failed Soon after he had to return home his mother was sick and her health was rapidly deteriorating Hitler stayed by her side And when she eventually died the family doctor said he had never seen someone so overwhelmed with Grief as Hitler was Then Hitler returned to Vienna still hoping to find a career in the arts But he never did instead without parental support hitler ended up on the streets now in his early 20s He spent a few rough years living in and out of homeless shelters, making What little he could from selling postcards He painted it's hard to pinpoint exactly when and how Hitler's extreme Ideological beliefs formed, but his time in Vienna would have certainly played a role Anti-semitism was widespread in the city the mayor whom hitler supported with an outspoken anti-semite There were many right-wing anti-semitic newsletters Which hitler took a keen interest in he bought into the conspiracy theories and became a firm believer in the idea that there are many Races and constant struggle with one another the purest of which were the German aryan people and the worst of which he believed were jews Since Austria-Hungary was a multi-ethnic Empire full of lesser races hitler wasn't a fan. So when he was 24 He moved to Munich in Germany to avoid doing military service and for one more year He was a drifter on the streets until something huge happened. 

In 1914 long-standing tensions in Europe erupted into the first world war. crowds across Europe celebrated the news. 

Within days Hitler volunteered for the German Army the war gave him a purpose in life his fellow Soldiers gave him friendship and Brotherhood Despite the horrors of War Hitler considered it to be the best time of his life. He was reportedly a brave soldier and was awarded the iron cross first class He was also very lucky and had many close encounters with death. 

His luck ran out in 1916 however when an artillery shell injured his leg he went back to germany to recover and was outraged to find a general Apathetic anti-war attitude among the exhausted and hungry German populace with the war turning against Germany he returns to the [frontlines] But was temporarily blinded by a british gas attack in 1918 a month later still recovering in hospital Hitler Learned of Germany's defeat and Surrender The terms of the peace treaty were tough on Germany it had to pay a lot of money and lose a lot of soldiers these Conditions weakened Germany and humiliated the German people. Europe's borders changed after the war too. 

New countries were formed out of Russia's lost territory Austria-Hungary was dissolved and there was one big new country splitting Germany into two. Hitler, seeing the country He loved humiliated like this said that hatred grew in him for those Responsible by which he meant communists and jews who he believed had stabbed Germany in the back by spreading dissent and Anti War Propaganda back home. 


Since Germany's military had to be reduced, Hitler could no longer remain a soldier after the war, but he kept working for the army as an informant. 

Most amazing one man last stands in history

9/15/2019 03:50:00 PM 1
Most amazing one man last stands in history
WRITTEN BY:  Rida Mohssine
LAST UPDATED:  See Topic History

Throughout history certain brave individuals have stood alone against overwhelming odds, taking on entire armies as a last stand has always been regarded as a one-way ticket to immortality and that ticket got seven of them a place on this list, these are the most badass one man last stands in history. 


 Number 7. 

Aníbal Milhais 1895 to 1970 known as Soldier Millions was the most decorated Portuguese soldier of World War I, his nickname came from him being described as worth a million men, during operation Georgette, Milhais stood alone with his machine gun and defeated two German assault by laying down intense fire leaving hundreds of Germans dead. 

He managed to cover the retreat of Portuguese and Scott's despite being under heavy fire himself. He fired in all directions and stayed at his post until he ran out of ammunition, in the end, the Germans decided to go around his position and Milhais found himself Behind Enemy Lines for 3 days, 
Only carrying his machine gun managed to rescue a Scottish major from a swamp, and the two reached Allied lines. A few months later Soldier Millions again held back a German assault standing alone with his Lewis gun allowing a Belgian unit to retreat safely to a secondary trench without any casualties. 

Number 6 

The lone Viking on Stamford Bridge. 
In 1066 during the Viking Invasion on the eastern coast of England, an epic last stand secured one man a spot in history, at Stamford Bridge a 15.000 man strong English army faced around 9,000 Vikings, Alone Berserker whose name is lost to time fortified at the bridge and took down more than 40 Englishmen, giving his fellow Vikings time to regroup. 

Holding a Dane ax, this anonymous Norse barbarian held back the entire English army for over an hour. the Viking finally succumbed when an English Soldier rowed under the bridge and stabbed him in the groin with a spear, mortally wounding the Berserker. 

His sacrifice was in vain as the Vikings were soon defeated marking the end of the Viking golden age. 


Number 5

Ben L Salomon. Benjamin Lewis Salomon 1914 to 1944 was the United States Army dentist during World War II, assigned as a front line surgeon, during the battle of Saipan, his aid station was overrun by a Japanese assault. when the Japanese started attacking his hospital rather than flee and leave his patients behind, he grabbed an M1 rifle and ordered the wounded to be evacuated while he would cover their retreat. He succeeded in holding the line, killing at least 98 enemy troops before dying himself. 

Number 4

Dian Wei. He was one of Cao Cao's many generals and was renowned for his strength and bravery. 

He fought in several battles in his lords honor, before he acted as the rearguard for his Escape at Wan Castle. Dian's last stand took place during the Battle of Wancheng in the year 197 when he stood at the entrance of the castle and barred the way against hordes of enemy soldiers. 

He killed at least 20 enemies before another group of Assassins that had entered the building from a different direction attacked him from behind. He was finally brought down by a rain of blows from every direction. 


Number 3

Musashibo Benkei. Musashibo Benkei was a massive Warrior monk who served Minamoto no Yoshitsune, and was known for being strong enough to pulverize ahead by just squeezing it, and for mastering the use of more than 9 weapons. 

Benkei accompanied Yoshitsune as an outlaw until they were encircled in the castle of Koromogawa in 1189. 

As Yoshitsune retired to the inner keep of the castle to commit ritual suicide known as seppuku, Benkei fought on at the bridge in front of the main gate to protect his master. Realising that any attempt of fighting Benkei of close would result in defeat the opposing Army decided to fight him from a distance instead. 

Benkei was killed by a barrage of arrows but by the time the rival hordes broke into the inner sanctum of the castle Yoshitsune had already committed seppuku. 

Number 2

John R. McKinney. Private John McKinney receive the Medal of Honor in World War II for his bravery during the campaign to recapture the Philippines from Japanese forces in 1945. 

He was taking a nap when a hundred Japanese soldiers launched a sneak attack on his position. he returned fire on them only using his rifle and Fists stood alone against waves of Japanese soldiers. He single-handedly thwarted the assault killing 40 of them before the rest withdrew using only his M1 Garand. 

Number 1

Sempronius Densus. He was a veteran in the praetorian guard and bodyguard to the Deputy Emperor Galba during the First Century A.C. He will be remembered by history for his courage and loyalty as he single-handedly defended his Emperor while all his Comrades deserted or switched sides. 

Completely surrounded Densus fought the entire Army of mutinous Roman soldiers by himself to defend the man he hardly knew. 
His courageous stand ended when he was brought down by a blow to the back of the knee and was enthusiastically murdered by the mob, Galba was later decapitated and his head was paraded around town on a spear.

AMAZING facts about the Roman Military

9/15/2019 03:50:00 PM 0
 AMAZING  facts about the Roman Military
WRITTEN BY:  Rida Mohssine
LAST UPDATED:  See Topic History

Did you ever wonder how the Roman Military go so powerful? 



From keeping the fear within the ranks to having amazing weapons, here are 10 facts about the Roman Military. 

10. Decimation


The Roman military was built upon discipline, but for those who failed or stepped out of line, the consequences were dire! Decimation was the punishment of choice for large groups of soldiers who has disobeyed orders, such as mutiny or desertion. 

In time like these, the army couldn’t afford to lose entire cohorts, which had up to 480 soldiers in them, so instead they dished out punishments at random. Decimation means the removal of a tenth in Latin, and that’s exactly what the Romans did. 

Tenth of what, you ask? The soldiers were separated into groups of ten, and forced to draw lots. The loser, regardless of rank, would then be executed by the other nine- by either being clubbed or stoned to death. 

Those who survived would sometimes then be given meagre rations for a few days and forced to sleep outside the fortifications to really feel the pain, before being welcomed back into the fold. 

Decimation was not as infrequent as you might imagine, but it was still controversial and only enacted as an option of last resort. It was the punishment given to those who fled the uprising of Spartacus, and was threatened to the 9th Legion by Julius Caesar in the war against Pompey- although in the end, he never went through with it.


 9. Weapons 

The weapons the Romans had at their disposal were a large part of the reason the military was so effective. Each legionary would be equipped with a sword, a dagger, and two javelins. 
The Sword, or Gladius, was worn high on the right side of the body. Made with strong steel, it was light and short, which meant it could be easily used for stabbing. 
The strong steel was a huge advantage over armies or people they were conquering that had weaker weapons. It was worn in that position on the right side so it could be drawn underarm with the right hand without affecting the left hand, which was holding the shield. 
The throwing spear, or Pilum, was about 6.5 feet long and was designed to stick into an enemies shield so they couldn’t defend themselves. 
They were very difficult to pull out again, and were designed to bend on impact so they couldn’t be thrown back again. Plus they were pretty heavy. The Dagger, or Pugio, was worn on the left side to be drawn by the right hand, and was used as a sidearm during close combat. It was made from the same strong steel as the sword, so it was a trusted weapon.


 8. The “Immunes” 

One of the reasons the Roman military was so effective was that each legion was pretty much self-sufficient. 
The people who held it all together were the “immunes”, who were a group of highly trained specialists that were responsible for maintaining the logistical and medical needs of the soldiers
They were doctors, engineers, and architects, and weren’t required to take part in the hard labour that the soldiers would do, and also earned more than them. 
The dedicated medical units on the battlefield used cutting edge technologies like tourniquets and surgical clamps to help stem blood loss. 
They were also good at the idea of taking antiseptic measures and cleaning wounds in ways that wouldn’t become the norm anywhere else until the 19th century. Of course they didn’t know about germs or bacteria per se, but they knew that cleanliness and hygiene were important. 
The doctors were also responsible for ensuring camps remained sanitary to prevent the spread of diseases through the troops. These extra measures, as well as the high quality food the soldiers were fed, meant that a legions life expectancy, apart from those killed in battle, was actually longer than civilians back in Rome.


 7. The Corvus 

The Romans didn’t design their own ships, but stole the designs from their enemies. 
Much easier right?? At first they practised naval warfare on land to devise their own tactics, but the most effective device they came up with was the Corvus. 
It was a bridge that could be lowered from a ship to allow the boarding of another, and changed the entire face of naval battles. It allowed the Roman army to take its superior land based skills onto the seas, and their enemies had no way to counteract it because, by the time they realized what was happening, it was way too late. The Corvus did, however, have a disadvantage. 
It couldn’t be used in rough seas because it would jeopardise the structure and balance of the ship. 
Its use was eventually abandoned following the loss of almost two entire fleets during storms in 255 and 249 BC. Most of the losses were attributed to the instability that the Corvus had caused in bad weather. Remember, they wanted to take over the ships, not detroy them so the Corvus defeated the whole purpose.


6. The First Battle was a Defeat 

The Romans are legendary for their military prowess, but it could have all been very different. In fact, their first battle was a comprehensive defeat, but it would give them the motivation to learn quickly and become the immense force that they are still remembered for. 
It happened in the year 390 BC and, following the defeat of small numbers of Roman forces by the Gauls where the Tiber and Allia rivers meet, the Gallic troops marched towards Rome. 
When they got there, the city was undefended, and they soon surrounded the tiny defence force that was on the Capitol Hill. These troops soon surrendered after they were starved out. 
The Gauls did eventually leave, but only after forcing the Romans to pay a hefty ransom in Gold. Soon after, to prevent anything similar from happening again, the Romans built up their city wall, improved defences, and committed vast resources to building up their army so they wouldn’t be caught unaware again.


 5. The Fetials

 The Fetials were a group of 20 Roman priests who were involved in international relations. 
They were integral to the signing of treaties and declarations of war. 
They were selected from noble families and, even though they were incredibly influential and important, they could only advise politicians on the way to act, and couldn’t make decisions themselves. 
They were, however, responsible for one of the more important war rituals. If a nation had offended Rome, a Fetial would be sent to the border and perform a prayer. 
If, after 30 days, no satisfactory response was given, they would return to the senate to inform them. 
They would then go back, and throw a spear into the offending territory, which would signal the start of a war. 
This method, they believed, prevented Rome from engaging in an unjust war. 
If the land was too far away to return and throw a spear they would, instead, throw it onto a piece of land in front of the Temple of Bellona in Rome. 
This land was said to be occupied by the enemy, so it gave them a way around the tradition if they believed the war was to their advantage and should commence immediately. Regardless of the prayer or sign or whatever, if they thought war was a good idea, they made it happen! 


4. Tactics

 The Romans revolutionised military tactics. The main foundation was the idea that you could fight far more effectively if order was maintained between the troops. 
Most enemies they faced would simply have their forces rush forward in groups, so in the face of Roman techniques they would be slaughtered. 
The infantry would maintain a tight formation, and march forward together as one. 
They had the cavalry on either side of them to protect their flanks, and behind them were the light troops and reserves. 
The generals would have the battlefield scouted before engaging, and adapt their tactics based on the terrain, the opposition, and how many Roman troops were present. It was their organization that helped them to conquer so many people over such large territories. Troops would practice various different formations and battle strategies, so when they were in a fight for real, they were well trained, equipped, and a force to be reckoned with. 
Their superior tactics meant that, even with potentially less able soldiers, they could defeat enemies with much larger numbers. 


3. The Praetorian Guard 

The Praetorian Guard date back to the Roman Republic, and were the Secret Service of their day. 
They were the most prestigious unit of the Roman military, would fight in campaigns, help put down an uprising, and do anything else the emperor required of them. And the Emperor required them a lot! They were also known to have been firefighters, helping to douse the flames at the Temple of Vesta, and would also perform at the Games. 
At the games they would publicly execute enemies of the empire. They would spy for the emperor and take out his enemies- but they weren’t always so loyal. 
The Praetorian Guard was also responsible for the assassination of a few Emperors, and even auctioning off the throne. In 193 AD, after killing Emperor Pertinax, they auctioned off the rights to be Emperor in return for 25,000 Roman sesterces for each member. 
A sesterce was a bronze or silver coin used by the Roman empire. It’s extremely hard to say how much a sesterce would have been worth by today’s standards because the value always changed but I image 25,000 was a lot. 


2. Battle of Cannae

 The Battle of Cannae took place in 216 BC, and was fought between the Romans and the Carthaginians, who were led by Hannibal. 
It is thought to have been the bloodiest day of battle ever, with more than 40,000 Romans losing their lives, and causing a great embarrassment for the empire. 
It was one of their greatest losses. Their problems started with the choice of location. Led by Hannibal, the Carthaginians chose Cannae as a deliberate ploy to get the Romans to attack. 
The empire was heavily reliant on the grain grown in Italy, and Cannae was in the center of the region responsible for this. 
They went straight into battle without preparing themselves properly, and may have been feeling over confident. 
Despite outnumbering their opponents, they were massacred. 
The Romans had also recently changed their tried and tested tactics, and this contributed to their losses. 
Their cavalry were smaller in number and less effective than their opposition, and this battle was the first that stood up against the Roman tactics. 
Not every system is perfect, clearly. 


1. Wealthy Class System 

Originally to be a part of the Roman army you had to be a Roman citizen. 
While the roots of this system were based on tribal ranks, the ruler Tullius decided to, instead, divide the army based on the property that the soldiers owned. 
They were segregated into six different classes based on what they possessed by determining an equivalent value of copper coins. 
The first three classes were armed with spears and shields, although the poorer they were, the fewer spears they got. 
Those in the fourth class only had spears and javelins, and if you were in the fifth class you would have a tiny bit of armour and only slings as weapons. 
Those in the sixth class were exempt from military duty altogether. The idea behind this was that fighting in the military was not a profession, it was the duty of a citizen to help defend and improve their own wealth and land. 
This reinforced the sense of nationalist pride, and stopped people forcing others to take risks while they stayed behind in the safety of the cities. 
As the empire grew, though, this system was replaced by one more similar to what we see today. Still, those who were richer would have access to better weaponry and were the only ones who could afford to ride on horseback. 

Since Germany's military had to be reduced, Hitler could no longer remain a soldier after the war, but he kept working for the army as an informant.